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The Reformation

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English Reformation
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
Counter Reformation
the reform movement within the roman catholic church whose goals were to abolish abuses and reaffirm traditional beliefs
pluralism
an official holding more than one office at a time
Thomas Cranmer
replaced Wolsey and convinced Henry in 1533 that he could divorce Catherine by breaking away from Rome
Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Charles V
sought to stop Protestantism and preserve the hegemony of Catholicism
Anabaptists
The rejected infant baptism and believed that a person should choose their own faith.
95 Thesis
Criticized the selling of indulgences and questioned the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences. The printing press facilitated the spread of Luther's work with astonishing speed.
Cardinal Wolsey
was cardinal of the holy roman empire fired after not being able to divorce Henry and cathrine
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
absenteeism
an official not participating in benefices but receiving payment and privileges
Puritans
They hoped for prosperity, demanded the purification of the Church of England, and objected certain practices from Catholics.
Catherine of Aragon
the first of Henry VIII; bore a daughter named Mary and had several still births afterwards; she was later devoiced by Henry after he established the Church of England
Institutes of the Christian Religion
in 1536, John Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion, in the international language Latin. Where Luther had aimed much of his writing either at he existing rulers of Germany or at the German national feeling against Rome, Calvin addressed his Institutes to all the world.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Phillip Melanchton
author or confessions of augsburg.
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
Colloquy of Marburg
1529, Zwingli and Luther officially split over the issue of Eucharist.
Index of Prohibited Books
Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church were banned. Possession could be severe
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
sale of indulgences
people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins of the loved ones (sin insurance)
Church of England (Anglican Church)
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Mary Stuart
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
predestination
idea that god determined who goes to heaven and hell
Erasmus
Wrote In Praise of Folly -- Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy. The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
simony
sale of church offices
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Huguenots
French Calvinists.
In Defense of the Seven Sacraments
A book written by King Henry III of England, criticizing Luther's views on the Catholic Church. This was written in a time of heightened power of the Catholic Church in England; kings had the power to appoint bishops.
Thirty-Nine Articles
defined the creed of Anglican Church
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
politique
a practical politician who carefully navigated a middle ground between Anglicanism and Protestantism.
nepotism
favoring family members in the appointment of Church offices
Ignatious Loyola
founder of Jesuits, made Spiritual Exercises, a guide book that was used to train Jesuits
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Presbyterianism
Scottish form of Protestantism that Charles I of England tried to force to conform to Angelican practices. Charles I thus inflamed conflict with Scotland because of his religious difference.
Transubstantiantion
as taking communion, wine becomes blood, wafer becomes body (catholic)
Johann Tetzel
He was a Dominican and served Pope Leo X. He collected indulgences from Germany for the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Justification by Faith
true definition of Christianity is in the self.
Peace of Augsburg
1.German rulers decide if they are Lutheran or Catholic 2.If a German Ruler took property from the church before 1552 they can keep it 3.Bishops go to states of their religion 4.Lutheran is the only other religion
Council of Trent
called by pope to put an end to church abuses
Anne Boleyn
Second wife of Henry VIII, gave birth to Elizabeth
Peasants' War
Hardest thing for Luther to cope with peasants mad at new taxes revolted tried to bring in Luther
John Calvin
He made a book about predestination. He also created calvinism or prebyters
Consubstantiation
wine is symbolic of blood, wafer is symbolic of body (lutherans)
Confessions of Augsburg
An attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE, but rejected by Catholic Princes
Act of Supremacy
declared the king the supreme head of the church of england
League of Schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
In Spain, Moriscos (Christian Moors) and Christian Jews were suspected of returning to their original faiths (Muslim and Judaism) and were thus persecuted or eliminated. In Italy, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull accusing Jews of killing Christ and ordered Jews to be placed in ghettos. Both of these occurences led to increased persecution of Jews throughout Europe.
"priestwood of all believers"
The bible is the sole authority. Only two sacaraments -- baptism and communion. not a hierachical structure.
Elizabeth I
English Queen united Protestants and Catholics through compromise

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