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Music History 1 2


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What are three types of early christian music?
Ambrosian, Beneventan, Celtic
The parts of a workship service for which the words are always the same are classified as
The eleventh century music theorist _______ had an important hand in the development of music education for church singers.
Guido of Arezzo
When a musical perfomance is divided between sections sung by a soloist and sections sung by a group, the performance is called
when a priest or cantor alternates with a choir, the performance is called
Which book contains the most frequently used chants (texts and music) for mass and office?
Liber usualis
Musically, the most important office hours are:
matins, Lauds, and vespers
Some chants give indications of having been created by assembling of melodic formulas in a process known as
An early secular drama with music is
Le Jeu de Robin et Marion
To which hexachord does the note B-flat belong?
Players of wind instruments had low social status in the medieval era.True or false.
An early liturgical play with music
The Play of Daniel
Melodic formulae in India, the middle east, and in the ancient synagogue are respectively called
ragas, maqam, ta'amim
Which of two portions of the mass are set mostly syllabically because of the length of their texts?
Gloria and Credo
the estampie is an instrumental form that parallels the vocal form of the
Solmization syllables in the Middle Ages are
ut re mi fa sol la
There are about 70 extant examples of Greek Music. True or False
A ______________ is a small guide symbol placed at the end of a line to designate the first pitc at the beginning of the next line
The four mathematical arts are
music, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic
The name for the mathematical arts
Who is credited with discoverin the use of ratios to determine musical tunings?
All of the following are parts of the Divine office (hours) except:

Sequences were created
To help remember the long melisma that same at the end of Alleluia
The kithara is associated with
The earliest liturgical drama grew out of the trope to the beginning of which of the following portions of the mass?
name the syllable of chant that was carved out of melisma in a chant of the proper to become a separate portionof the mass, a dance composition, a secular song, etc.
"ia" (jubilus)
Two portions of the Ordinary of the Mass have tripartite divisions (ABA, AAA)
Kyrie, Agnus Dei
Name the five parts of the Ordinary of the Mass
Gloria, Kyrie, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Name three parts of the proper of the mass
Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory
Name three repertories of chant that existed prior to the Gregorian consolidation in the 8th century
Ambrosian, Beneventan, Celtic
What is the formal design of the sequence, the estampie, lai?
aa bb cc dd...
name the 3 genera of Greek tetrachords
diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic
ancient greek credited with discovery of the ratios to create the modern tuning system.
A greek wind instrument utilizing a double reed often. Used in the worship of Dionysus. Used to accompany dithyrambs, forerunners of Greek dramas, and also in the great tragedies of the classical age.
Notker Balbulus
"the Stammerer". A monk known for inventing the sequence to help him remember the notes of a jubilus to an alleluia.
What are the three types of hexachords?
Soft, natural, and hard
what were the three types of plays?
Miracle, Morality, and Mystery
What was a troubador?
From southern france, travelling singers, some attached to courts
What "ethos" is the Dorian mode associated with?
Apollo, Kithara, inspired people to love Athens, proud, masculine, noble feelings
What ethos is the Phrygian mode associated with?
Dionysus, God of Wine, aulos. Associated with impure passions, more colloquial Greeks and religion
What two things were inseperable to the greeks?
music and religion
Lyre and Kithara
-Both strummed stringed instruments
-used in worshipping Apollo
-used for singing and reciting epic poems
plucked string instrument
When did competitions begin between solo aulos and lyre players?
582 bce
Characteristics of Greek Music:
-Most surviving music comes from relatively late periods and is for voice
-Monophonic(melody w/o harmony or counterpoint)
-Heterophony(instrument embellishing on the melody while a soloist or unison ensemble sings the same melody)
-Musical rhythm was bound to the rhythm of poetry
What are the two main types of theoretical writings in Ancient Greek Musical Thought?
-doctrines on the nature of music
-systemaic descriptions of compositional patterns
What was one of the concepts formulated by the Greeks that continued to influence medieval thinkers and musicians?
Music and magical healing powers
Music and numbers (Pythagorus)
he linked pitch relations (intervals) to numerical ratios. (according to Boethius, he discovered this while listening to a Blacksmith's shop
Music and numbers (Ptolemy)
An astronomer who linked musical intervals to the movement of the planets, or the "music of the spheres," the unheard music produced by the movements of the planets
-speech + rhythm and harmony (i.e. Pitches) according to Plato
What is the Doctrine of Ethos?
The belief that music possessed moral qualities and could affect character and behavior
What did Plato and Aristotle believe about education>
It should include proper kinds of music to create desirable qualities in citizens.
the study of pitch developed by Aristoxenus thought to be the most important ancient treatise on music

reworked by Cleonides
-the basic building block of musical systems.
-include 4 notes
Diatonic Tetrachord
Chromatic Tetrachord
Enharmonic tetrachord
Tonoi (plural of tonos)
Terms for melodic types based on geographical regions (dorian, ionian, aeolian)

Cleonides and Ptolemy agreed on seven types (species), one starting on each step of the octave
Although Jewish and Greek traditions were somewhat similar to early christian traditions, there was no unification in the western church until:
gregorian chant.
Jewish vs Christian ritual sacrifice
Jewish- ritualistic sacrifice of an animal (lamb) was an integral part of worship services

Christian- priest drinks wine and eats bread representing jesus' body and blood
What did Christians borrow from Jewish practice dealing with readings?
Assigned readings for each day along with practice of commenting upon them in homilies.
-Hymn singing
-Poetic elaborations on the Bible
-Strophic Form
-elaboration on the canticles of the Bible
-9 sections, one for each of the odes
-each section strophic with several stanzas
-Texts were compiled from standard phrases
-Melodies were also compiled from standard phrases (centonization)
Gregorian chant comes from the cooperation of:
Frankish kings and Roman popes
Gallican Chant
-first to be supressed and now is known only by name
Mozarbic Chant
-Spanish chant during Moorish occupation
-replaced by the Roman liturgy in 1071
Old Roman chant
-developed alongside Gregorian, outside of the vatican
-named for St. Ambrose
-centered in Milan and influenced other liturgies to adopt responsorial psalmody
Gregorian chant
-resulted from reorganization of Roman chant under Pope Vitalian
-earliest surviving manuscripts copied in Frankish kingdoms
Charlemagne attempted to supress chant dialects other than:
Schola Cantorum
-School of Singers
Rome's training ground for singers
Did Early Christian theologists believe in the Doctrine of Ethos?
Two things Early Christians believed based on the music in church
-music should serve religion
-musical instruments should be banned from churches because of their pagan uses
The three verbal Arts

grammar, dialectic, rhetoric
-Wrote a book that is the compendium of greek music theory
-Supports Doctrine of Ethos
Boethius' original contribution is the idea of three types of music:
Musica mundana: cosmic music
Musica humana: union of the body and soul
Musical instrumentalis: audible music
Who created the Liber Usualis and why?
Monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Solesmes in order to restore chant to its medieval style through the study of older chant books. Compiled in the early 20th century, contains the most commonly used chants.
Divine office (Canonical Hours)
-8 prayer services observed daily
-prayers and psalms are the main focus
-antiphons are sung with each psalm and vary according to the church calendar
-hymns and canticles are also sung
The liturgy of the mass was standardized by ____
the late 7th century
Council of Trent changed the liturgy somewhat
Structure of the Mass liturgy
Intro: Kyrie and Gloria (priest and choir)
-Collects and epistle (prayers or readings sung by priest)
-Gradual, Alleluia or Tract, Sequence (sung by soloist with responses by choir)

Liturgy of the Word:

Liturgy of the Eucharist:
-Agnus Dei, Communion
-Post-communion prayers
-Ite missa est or Benedicaums Domino
Proper Texts
-vary according to church calendar
-Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Tract, Offertory, Communion
Ordinary Texts
-same all throughout the year
-Sung by choir
-Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, benedictus, Agnus dei
antiphonal chant
sung by alternating choirs
Sung by soloist alternating with a choir
no alteration
Syllabic Text-setting
One note per syllable
Melismatic Text setting
frequent use of many notes per syllable (meslismas)
Neumatic text setting
mostly syllabic but with melismas up to five notes long
-verse or sentence with its own melody
-most numerous category of chant
-usually in simple style
-sung before and after a psalm and b/w each verse
formula for the beginning of the first verse of the psalm
reciting tone, used for the majority of the syllables
cadence formula for the mid-point of a psalm verse
final cadence formula for the end of each psalm verse
Responsory or Responds
-short verse sung by soloist then repeated by the choir
-precedes prayer or reading
-repeated at the end of the prayer or reading
-newly composed additions to chant
-new words and music added
-new melismas added w/o text
-new words added to exising melismas
Sequences originated as __________ to ____________ but became independent pieces.
tropes, alleluias
popular compositional type in 10th -13th centuries

-aa bb cc dd.... form

-created by Notker Balbulus
text for a sequence
Hildegard of Bingen
-German nun
-Composed both melodies and words of sequences and other chants
-freer form than in sequences composed in france or switzerland
Liturgical Drama (orginated... ex... characteristic)
-originated as trope to introit
-ex. Quen quaeritis in praesepe
-sacred, but not part of the liturgy
Main source of greek music theory
Four finals of modes
d, e, f, g
Where are authentic modes ranges in relation to their finals?
Where are plagal modes ranges in relation to their finals?
above and below ( about a p4th below their authentic counterparts)
Second characteristic Tone of each mode
Where is the tenor in authentic modes?
a p5th above final
Where is the tenor in plagal modes?
a third below the final of the corresponding authentic mode, but when the resulting pitch is a b, the tenor is a c
a system for teaching sight-singing
Proposed syllables for pitches by
Semitone always comes:
between mi and fa
hexachord system comes from
Solmization system of guido.
what was the only hexachord used by guido?
Natural hexachord:
Soft hexachord
Hard hexachord
moving from one hexachord to another
Guidonian hand
assigning notes to parts of the hand helped students learn their intervals
Earliest notation:
neumes above words in chantbooks
10th century chantbooks notation:
neumes at different heights to indicate relative pitches
late 10th century chantbook notation:
use a red line to indicate pitch f and yellow to represent c
By guidos time, notation used:
4 lines
Goliard songs
-11th and 12th centuries
-text in latin about impure things
-staffless notation
-camina burana texts from these songs
11-13th centuries
-used to conduct clerics from place to place in lit. dramas or church
-texts are serious, nonliturgical, in latin, metrical form
-subjects are sacred or secular
-newly composed music, not from chant
jongleurs (minstrels)
-wandered from village to village
-vocalists and instrumentalists
-sang and played music by others
Troubadors and trouveres
-inventors of song
-southern france
-speaking langue d'oc (occitan) also called provecal.
-northern france
-speaking langue d'oil (became modern french)
Genres of troubador and trouveres songs
-dance songs
-love songs
-debating songs
-political or moral songs
-religious songs
-musical plays
what is the most famous musical play?
Adam de la Halle's Jeu de Robin et Marion
Form of "Robins m'aime"
Rondeau form, ABabAB
Melodic style of troubador and trouveres songs
-syllabic text setting
-narrow range
sang of love in strophic songs with melodic repetitions
most famous was hanz sachs, composed "nachdem david war"
in spain, songs of praise to the virgin mary in style similar to troubador songs
italy, songs for religious penitence
-england and france
-dance form
-monophonic or polyphonic
-repeated sections
-italy's version of the estampie
-medieval europe
-ireland and britain
-medieval instrument
-bowed string instrument, ancestor or viols
-medieval instrument
-played by turning a crank that rubbed a wheel against 3 strings
-used in churches
-a zither played by plucking or striking the strings
plucked string instrument brought to spain by moors
wind instruments
flutes, reeds and trumpets
portative organs
carried and could be played by 1 person
positive organ
placed on tables and needed 2 people to play
Graduale contains
music and text for mass
music and text for offices
Winchester troper
collection of tropes
parts of ordinary
kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus dei, ite missa est
parts of proper
alleluia (tract)
mode 1
dorian (d-d)
tenor: a
mode 2
hypodorian, a-d
mode 3
phrygian e-e
tenor c
mode 4
hypophrygian b-e
mode 5
lydian f-f
tenor c
mode 6
hypolydian c-f
tenor a
mode 7
mixolydian g-g
tenor d
mode 8
hypomixolydian d-g
tenor c

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