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western expansion


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In return for the land the settlers received, they agreed to become citizens of Mexico and convert to the Roman Catholic religion. Regardless, the settlers felt no loyalty to Mexico. Many of them didn't understand Spanish and were Protestants. This caused some conflict in the Mexican society.
Why did Americans living in Texas have conflict with the Mexican government?
lewis and clark
who did the president of the US send to explore the territory after it was purchased?
colonization: US can only move west because the atlantic ocean is at the east. but they cannot because of the proclamation of 1763 says they cannot expand past the apalacian mountains. northwest ordinance (1787): a system to create states; must ahve a written constitution, must have a certain population. the louisiana purchase (1803) only 1/3 of the way left until coastland. after france is gone, no more big obstacle. after war with mexico land can be stolen. "we are almost there, only weak spaniards to fight now. florida treaty with Spain (1819): before mexican war, territory still needed to achieve manifest destiny.
US expansionism before the mexican war:
The Zuni Indians irrigated and farmed the land before the Spanish arrived. Other native Americans, such as the Apaches, lived by hunting. Juan de Onate, a Spanish explorer, claimed the territory of New Mexico for Spain in 1598. In the early 1600s, the Spanish built Santa Fe as the capital. It soon became a busy trading town. In the early 1840s, California also belonged to Mexico.
Who governed california and new mexico?
it needed money to finance its wars in europe
this country offered to sell the louisiana territory to the US because
When Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna came to power in Mexico, some say he had the intention of ridding Mexico of all American settlers. When Texans heard this, the believed it was time to take some action. They received the support from many Tejanos, or Mexicans who lived in Texas who didn't exactly want independence from Mexico. However, they did want to get rid of Santa Anna, who ruled as a military dictator. he was the general in during the Alamo battle
Define Santa Anna
he believed in strict interpretation of the constitution which did not grant a clear authority for a president to negotiate such a purchase,
why was making the louisiana purchase a difficult decision for the US president to make?
The Mexican capital was in American hands so they had to make peace. In 1848, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The treaty forced Mexico to cede, or give, all of California and New Mexico to the United States. This territory was known as the Mexican Cession. In return, the United States paid Mexico $15 million. Americans also agreed to respect the rights of Spanish-speaking people in the Mexican Cession. A few years following the end of the Mexican War, the United States completed Manifest Destiny. In 1853, it agreed to pay Mexico $10 million for a piece of land located in present-day Arizona and New Mexico. The United States needed this land in order to fulfill the building of a railroad. The land was called the Gadsden Purchase.
Define Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Gadsden Purchase
In 1769, Captain Gaspar de Prtola led a group of soldiers and missionaries up the Pacific coast. The chief missionary was father Junipero Serra, who built his first mission at San Diego and eight others in other places. After some time, there were 21 Spanish missions along the California coast. Each mission claimed the surrounding land and was able to take care of its own needs. Spanish soldiers built forts near the missions because the missions supplied meat, grain, and other foods to the forts.
Define Missions.
they kept careful records and maps of their journey. they were aided by native americaninterpreter sacagawea. they were sent to explore territories acquired in the louisiana purchase.
what did lewis and clark do during the expedition.
Texas declared independence on March 2, 1836
when did texas declare independence?
His father, Moses Austin, was granted the land by Spain while Mexico was still a colony. By 1830, Americans had resettled in Texas and the colony grew rapidly under the leadership of Austin. he was the governor of texas
Who was stephen austin
The flow of people moving west was stronger and stronger and this discovery of gold in California only provoked it farther. One day, at Sutter's mill, John Sutter was inspecting the bottom of a ditch and saw gold. Hence, the discovery of gold in California triggered thousands of Americans to get gold fever. People from Europe, China, Australia, and south America joined the rush as well. More than 80,000 people made the long journey to California in 1849. These people were known as the forty-niners.
How did the discovery of gold affect people moving west? Define Sutters Mill, forty-niners as part of your answer
the mississippi river, the port of new orleans, cast lands between the mississippi river and the rockies
the louisiana purchase gave the US control of
Mexico never did accept the independence of Texas so to them, it was stealing territory without any compromise. Also, they were concerned that the example set by Texas would encourage Americans in California and New Mexico to rebel. Meanwhile, Americans resented Mexico. President Polk offered to pay mexico $30 million for California and New Mexico. But Mexico didn't want to lose any more territory so they refused the offer. Americans felt that Mexico was an obstacle in the way of Manifest Destiny.
How did the United States annexation of Texas spark the Mexican War?
Sam Houston was appointed commander of the army of the new republic of texas
who was appointed commander of the army of the new texas?
The new country faced many issues. Firstly, Mexico refused to accept the treaty signed by Santa Anna and they still considered Texas as part of Mexico. Second, Texas was nearly bankrupt. Most citizens believed joining with the United States would solve both problems. However, Americans were unable to decide whether to annex, or add on, Texas. Many southerners were in favor of the idea. But the northerners disagreed because of the slavery issue in the south. If Texas were to be accepted, that would be similar to saying slavery is ok in the US, which it wasn't because the northerners were against it. President Andrew Jackson also didn't want the annex Texas because it would lead to war with Mexico. So Congress didn't annex Texas.
Why didn't the U.S.A. annex Texas right after it achieved independence?
observe natural phenomena such as weather, animals and plants. map out the route as you go. return safely.
what were the orders given to the these explorers?
This was because many Americans saw the culture and the democratic government of the United States as the best in the world. They believed that the United States had the right and the duty to spread its rule all the way to the Pacific Ocean. after the french gave up their territory in NOrth america, the US not longer had to deal with really rich and powerful nations so it was really easy from the point where they bought the louisiana territory on to claim the rest of the territory.
Why did Americans believe in Manifest Destiny?
who was the leader of the country the us made the louisiana purchase from?
the gadsden purchase was established in...
sam houston was the leader of the army of texas and was elected president of texas after they recieved their independence.
who was sam houston?
the texas annexation was established in...
When there weren't steamboats, travel on the water could be difficult and slow, especially when going upstream. Using paddles and pulling with ropes against a strong current was nasty and hard work. In 1787, the Constitutional Convention was introduced with how a steam engine could power a boat. Steamboats were faster and didn't take human power to use. A round trip from New York City to Albany (300 miles) and back took just 62 hours (it was a record at that time). steamboats also gave farmers and merchants a cheap means of moving goods. Because steamboats and improved roads did not help western farmers get their goods directly to markets in the east, Americans dug canals, or an artificial channel filled with water that allows boats to cross a stretch of land. The first few American canals were no more than a few miles long. Some made routes around waterfalls on a river while others linked a river to a nearby lake. Later on, Americans started building longer canals.
Define steamboats and canals. How did steamboats and canals improve transportation?
$15 million
how much did the united states pay for the louisiana territory?
oregon territory was established in...
it laid the groundwork for future expansion to the pacific ocean. it provided the US with great natural resources and fertile farmland. it doubled the size of the US.
the impact of the louisiana purchase was
After the Alamo fell, the Texans grew furious and wanted revenge. It grew stronger three weeks later when Mexican forces killed several hundred Texan soldiers at Goliad even after they surrendered. Sam Houston's army was filling with volunteers. Even men from the United States went to the south to help the cause. On April 21, 1836, Houston decided to attack. Santa Anna was camped with his army hear the San Jacinto River. The Battle of San Jacinto lasted only 18 minutes. Even though the Texans were outnumbered, they managed to kill 630 mexicans and capture 700 others. The next day, Santa Anna was captured by the Texans. He was forced to sign a treaty granting Texas its independence.
How did Texas finally win its independence?
People without family who wanted to start over would move to the west to begin their new life. At first, the few European or American travelers to Oregon Country were mostly fur traders. Since furs could be sold at tremendous profits in China, Merchants from New England stopped along the Oregon coast before crossing the Pacific. Only a few of these fur traders really settled in Oregon. These adventurous men hiked through Oregon's vast forests, trapping animals and living off the land. These people were known as Mountain men. Their appearance was fairly different, considering they carried tomahawks and pistols, had hair that reached their shoulders, and wore clothing made of animal hides. Although they earned a lot of money from this, mountain men led very dangerous lives. It required special survival skills. The cold mountain winters, for instance. Or the thick forests, where you had to be especially careful of bears, wildcats or other harmful animals. During harsh winters, there were barely any animals to hunt. The trappers would eat almost anything. Also, they had to face challenges from unfriendly Indians, whom attacked mountain men who trapped on Indian hunting grounds without permission. Meanwhile, in China, tens of thousands of people were hurrying to the west, but for something else. They had discovered tons of gold in California and it was ready to be dug up!. The largest group of settlers to move into the Mexican Cession were the Mormons. They belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints.
Who settled the west? What kinds of challenges did they face? Define Oregon Trail, Mountain Men, Wagon Trains and Mormons as part of your answer
lewis and clark coressed the continental divide
what did lewis and clark especially suceed in doing
Because the flag the Texans carried with them into battle had one white star on it, they decided to nickname their nation the Lone Star Republic. They wrote a constitution similar to the US's constitution and elected Sam Houston as their president.
what was the lone star republic?
The New Mexico Territory was the huge region that belonged to Mexico. It covered the entire southwest and included most of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico, all of Nevada and Utah, and parts of Colorado. Life in the Southwest was hot and dry. Thick grasses grow in some areas. It is a land of dramatic contrasts. There are two tall mountain ranges that run through the region. Between these mountains is California's fertile Central Valley. Northern California receives plenty of rain. However, water is scarce in the south and a lot of the land is desert. Mild temperatures are experienced all year round, except for areas high in the mountains.
Describe New Mexico and California before it was part of the U.S. What was life like there?
IN the early 1800s, American farmers have always wanted to farm in the south, especially the region of Texas. Texas belonged to Mexico at that time, who just won their independence from Spain. Texas belonged to Stephen Austin at the time. His father, Moses Austin, was granted the land by Spain while Mexico was still a colony. The population of Texas was only about 4000 and was very weak. Mexico hoped that America would help develop the new Texas and control Indian attacks. So they requested that Austin lead Americans to Texas. These settlers would be granted a lot of land. By 1830, Americans had resettled in Texas and the colony grew rapidly under the leadership of Austin. In return for land, Austin and the settlers agreed to become Mexican citizens and practice the Roman Catholic religion.
Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas?
Polk offered to give Mexico $30 million for California and New Mexico. Mexico was already furious about losing Texas and didn't want to get rid of more of their territory. So they refused Polk's offer.
How did Polk try and acquire California and New Mexico without going to war? Why did Mexico refuse?
thomas jefferson
who was the president of the united states during the louisiana purchase?
Manifest Destiny played an important part of the election of 1844. The Democrats chose a little-known candidate, James K. Polk while the Whigs nominated Henry Clay for President. Polk favored expansion and demanded that Texas and Oregon be added to the United States. But Clay opposed the annexation of Texas. The democrats made Oregon a special campaign issue. As you read, Britain and the United States helped Oregon jointly. Polk demanded the whole region all the way to its northern border at latitude 54 degrees 40'N. "Fifty four forty or fight!" became the Democrats' campaign cry. On election day, Americans showed their support for expansion by choosing Polk as President.
How did manifest destiny become a campaign issue in the election of 1844? Define James Polk in your answer.
When Santa Anna got to San Antonio, fewer than 200 Texans remained as defenders. Regardless of the odds against them, the Texans didn't let this get to them. Instead of giving up, they retired to the Alamo, or an old Spanish mission. These Texans were poorly equipped for a battle. Medicine, food, and ammunition were very low. Water was limited and food consisted of beef and corn. To make things only worse, there were only about 150 people left to defend the Alamo against 6000 Mexican troops! William Travis commanded the Texans inside the mission. A few of the volunteers included the famous frontiersmen Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett. Also, several Tejano families, two Texan women, and two young male slaves were present. On February 23, 1836, Mexican troops began a siege of the Alamo. The Texans fought bravely. Nevertheless, Travis knew that his troops were doomed unless he got some help. He sent a letter to the people of Texas and all the Americans in the World saying they need desperate help in the battle. Additionally, Travis sent scouts to seek additional soldiers and provisions. Only about 40 men were able to sneak through the enemy lines and join the fighters in the Alamo. No large force ever arrived. For 12 days, the defenders help off Mexican bombardment. But at dawn on March 6, cannon fire broke through the walls of Alamo. Thousands of Mexican soldiers poured into the mission. When the bodies were counted, 183 Texans and almost 1500 Mexicans were dead. The Texan survivors were executed.
define the alamo.
what country sold the louisiana territory to the united states?
A few New Yorkers had an idea that would let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York. It would also bring business to towns along the route. They wanted to build a canal that linked the Great lakes with the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, called the Erie Canal. To many, this idea was almost impossible to fulfill at that time. However, the governor of New York, DeWitt Clinton ignored such criticism. He asked state lawmakers to fund the Erie Canal. Scoffers referred to the project as "Clinton's Ditch". The project started in 1817. The digging was done by hand at first but was then done with machine that inventors developed that could remove up to 40 trees a day. by 1825, the job was finished. It was an instant success that reduced travel time, cost of shipping, and made New York City a center of commerce. This success led other states to build canals too. they created vital economic links between western farms and eastern cities.
What was the Erie Canal and what was its impact on New York? Define DeWitt Clinton and "Clinton's Ditch" as part of your answer.
the spanish cession was established in...
gold, religion, land. or to make money off of people in search of land, gold and religion
who settled west and why?
lewis and clark explored the ________part of the louisiana territory.
The phrase manifest destiny means the belief that the US should be a bicoastal nation in that we should expand to the pacific ocean from the atlantic ocean. Americans believed in this thought that the United States was clearly meant to expand to the Pacific from the Atlantic.
What is Manifest Destiny?
the mexican cession was established in...
The United States finally decided that they needed better roads. So, private companies built gravel and stone roads. To pay for these roads, the companies collected tolls from travelers. At various points along the road, a pike, or pole, blocked the road. After a wagon driver paid a toll, the pike keeper turned the pole aside to let the wagon pass. As a result, these toll roads were called turnpikes. The Lancaster Turnpike was most likely the best road in the United states. It was built in the 1790s by a private company. The Road linked Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The water on the road drained off quickly because it was set on a bed of gravel. Also, it was topped with smooth, flat stones. In swampy areas, one's wagon could easily sink. To prevent this, roads were built of logs. These roads were known as corduroy roads because the lines of logs look like corduroy cloth. Although it prevents sinking in the mud, it makes a bumpy ride. Only some states back them set aside money to build or improve roads. In 1806, Congress approved funds for a national road building project. The National Road was to run from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, in western Virginia. The project began in 1811 and was finished in 1818. The road was extended into Illinois later on.
Describe the means of transportation settlers took to the west in the early 1800s. Define turnpikes, Lancaster Turnpike, corduroy roads, National Road as part of your answer.
zebulon pike explored the ________part of the louisiana territory

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