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World Hist- People

Set of world history people for our final.

Terms

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Francis Bacon
English scientist, stressed careful empirical evidence
Charles Mantel
'The Hammer', founding member of Carolingian family, defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732), preserves Christianity in Europe, curbs spread of Islam
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian renaissance author of The Prince, gave realistic ideas for seizing and maintaining throne for monarchs (a good monarch is feared)
Sufis
mystics within Islam, responsible for expansion of Islam to Southeastern Asia
Alexander the Great
successor of Philip II, conquered Persian empire prior to his death, attempted to combine Greek and Persian culture,established Alexandria
Diocletian
Roman emperor from 284 to 305 CE, restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection, however roots of decline were too much to stop
Thomas More
advisor to Henry IV, stagnant Catholic supporter, martyr
Clovis
Frankish Warrior Chieftain converted to Christianity
Lao Tzu
Laozi, founded Taoism, emerged at end of Zhou reign, embraces natures harmony and mystery
Matteo Ricci
along with Adam Schall, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to christianity
Adam Smith
Scottish economist/philosopher, "Wealth of Nations", self interest, competition, laissez faire
Sundiata
'The Lion Prince', emperor of Mali, supported Islam, created basic rules and relationships for society and governments, created title of Mansa or emperor
Constantine
Roman emperor from 312 to 337 CE, established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually,
Muhammad
founder of Islam, 570 CE, Quraysh Clan, sucessful merchant/trader, receives revelation from Allah, fled to Medina
Giotto
Early Italian Renaissance painter "Madonna", 3rd dimensional images, emphasis on landscapes and people, shading and color, nature
Kung Fuzi
ancient Chinese philosopher, born in 6th century BCE, author of Analects; "Do unto others as their status and yours dictates"
Abbasids
party of Sunni Muslims, descendants of Muhammad's Uncle, ally with Shi'a and mawali, conquered Persia and Iraq and Syria, assassinate Umayyad clan, turn on allies, build new capital at Baghdad, claim absolute power over Islamic faithful, establish bureaucracy
Mary Wollstonecraft
English Enlightenment feminist, wrote "A Vindication for the Rights of Women"
Sunnis
supporters of Umayyads, majority of Muslims today, (caliphs)
John/William Harvey
English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump,
Alexis Romanov
(Russia) Successor to Michael, 2nd Monarch, abolished assemblies of monarchs, strengthened ties to Orthodox Church
Jean Calvin
created Calvinism, believed in predestination, participation for all believers in church administration, popular education, adopted in Switzerland Germany and France
Prince Henry The Navigator
Portuguese monarch who sponsored expeditions to the African Coast and Western European islands (Madeiras, Azores, etc), created universities for shipbuilding and navigation
Medicis
successful Italian banking family
John Locke
English enlightenment thinker who believed people could everything that needed to know through logic and reasons, "An Essay On Human Understanding", influenced Declaration of Independence, despised by Catholic Church, believed governments succeeded through the power of the people, who should be allowed to overthrow rulers they saw unfit
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Dutch theologian who translated the bible out of Latin and into Greek
Almoravids
a puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of Northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of savanna and westward into Spain
Xi Xia
kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid 11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Aztecs
empire in central America, primarily mexico and Guatemala
Cyril and Methodius
missionaries sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted Southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese Explorer; first European to reach India by sea in 1498
Catherine the Great
German wife of Peter III takes over,successfully puts down Pugachev Rebellion, strengthens power of central government, disliked her son, enlightened ruler: western philosophers in court, western style legal codes, patronized arts and science, continues expansion into Ottoman empire and Sibera Alaska North America, Partitions of Poland
Kublai Khan
grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces, responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
Jesus of Nazareth
prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah executed circa 30 CE.
Mansa Musa
a successor of Sundiata, made pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, brought attention of Muslim world to wealth of Mali, distributed so much gold it caused inflation in areas he visited, brought Muslim poetry and architecture back to Mali
Martin Luther
German monk who posted the 99 Theses, led to reformation, ideas against catholic church: sacraments, celibacy for priests, indulgences, authority of Pope, vernacular bible. Followers created the Lutheran church.
Hongwu
originally a peasant Zhu Yuanzhang, he was the first Ming emperor, he drove out Mongol influence and revived the position of the scholarly gentry (civil service exam, public spankings etc).
Ivan IV
'The Terrible', kills boyars and nobles, expansion, trade contacts with Western Europe, dies without male heir
Almohadis
a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Africa
Ivan III
'The Great', proclaims Russia as 3rd Rome, adopts name of Tsar, expansion into eastern Europe and central asia
Ashikaga Takuaji
Member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga Shogunate from 1335-1373, drove out emperor
Tsar Peter III
nephew of Peter the Great, unable to rule due to mental retardation, married to Catherine the Great
Denis Diderot
assembled knowledge into "Encyclopedia"
Yoritomo Minamoto
leader of family who weakened authority by murdering members of his family and replacing them with Hojo advisors (JAPAN).
Frederick The Great
Prussian king of 18th century, enlightened despot, attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms to Germany, built on bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors, introduced freedom of religion, increased state control of the economy
Charlemagne
'Charles the Great'; solidifies Holy Roman Empire (800), death led to split and development of separate languages
Botticelli
N/A
Justinian
Byzantine emperor, attempted to reconquer West and recreate Roman empire ultimately failed, married to manipulative Empress Theodora, physically rebuilding Constantinople (Hagia Sophia), systemized Roman legal code
Fuggers
successful banking family in Hapsburg's empire
Thomas Aquinas
Italian born monk, teacher at University of Paris, faith first, but faith can enhance reason, reason provides an understanding of natural order, moral law, nature of god, etc, summas, summa theologica,
Shi'as
'party of Ali', have differences in belief, ritual, and religious law (imams, less followers, etc)
Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha, founded Buddhism in 563, hindu mystic who accepted spiritual truths of Hinduism, but rejected worldly concepts, particularly the caste system
Incas
empire in central America, primarily andes chile
Chinggis Khan
born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all MOngol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world
Pericles
Athenian political figure, responsible for a democratic structure in which each citizen could participate in city state assemblies to select officials to pass laws
Bernard Clairvaux
a powerful monk successfully challenged Abelard, believed that one could only recieve God's truth through faith, reason was dangerous and proud
Benedict of Nursia
founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine rule in the 6th century (work and pray)
Peter Abelard
scholar who applied reason and logic to theology
Empress Wu
Tang Ruler, attempted to make Buddhism state religion of China, reigned from 690-705, created giant statues of Buddha
William The Conqueror
Duke of Normandy, (French), introduces monarchial feudal system to England in 1066
Admiral Zhenghe
Chinese Eunuch, who led a series of seven trade expeditions to India, Africa, and MIddle East

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