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Final Exam Review guide



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Oliver Cromwell
creates protectorate
First estate
William III
maryII's husband, duke of orange
Von Schlieffen Plan
1.) two front war- France and Russia 2.) France is the more dangerous enemy 3.) Defeat France First then Russia 4.) Attack France through Belgium
Glorious Revolution
mary and will stomp on england and throne, Overthrow of James ll
Franco- Prussian war
prussia wants southern german states to unite with german kingdom, france vs. prussia, prussia wins, will now german empire
pius IX
was given papal states
von schlieffen plan
a. two front war b.)france= more dangerous, attack first, then russia c.) defeat france first d.)attack france through belgium
Fourteen Points
wilson's plan for world peace following world war I
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV legalizes protestant religion and makes everyone happy
World War I
(1914-1918) BOP War sparked by assassination of Archduke ferdinand. Causes were nationalism, and romanticism. Resulted in a humiliating German defeat and the establishment of communism in Russia
Charles II
first king of restoration, smart, cautious, partier
tennis court oath
swears the national assembly will stay together till they have a const. monarchy
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
BO el Alamein
british are superior, britain wins against germany
Louis XIV
son of Louis XII, smart, dilligent, model of absolutism
V. I. Lenin
took over russia as a communist country
1791 constitution
king sign having a limited monarchy
russian social democrats under lenin as leader, communists
Frederick the Great
hollezollen, of prussia, attempts to end torture, fails- too many wars
Second Estate
nobility, people with a title
one classs, everyone is equal, states own all heavy manufacturing
Battle of Castelificardo
pope vs. garibaldi for papal state, pope loses
John Calvin
INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION: emphasized predestination and he rejected the medieval Church. he believed that the church and state should be united under the Calvinist faith
Desiderius Erasmus
religious philosopher who wrote satire, objected to silly catholic superstitions, famous for In Praise of Folly
leading family in the Holy Roman Empire, ruled Austria
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Thirty years war
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of westpahlia
Charles I
is the son of james, nice but stupid, creates the outbreak of english civil war
Divine Comedy
written by Dante Aligheri, Italian, writes satire
Divine Right of Kings
god gave kings the right to rule and kings are answerable only to God
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
War of the Austrian Successon
austria vs. prussia, prussia invades austria for silesia, prussia wins
giuseppe Garibaldi
liberal and democratic, invades papal states and gains them
the hundred days
from when napoleon left elba to when he was defeated in water loo
European union
an economic and political grouping of countries in Western Europe; EU; use the euro as currency
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
justification by faith
the belief that you are saved if you believe in Jesus.
all major decisions are made by a committee even though most are made by nobility
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
n. A Christian who denies the authority of the Pope and holds the right of special judgment.
Axis powers and leaders
Ital, Germany, Japan_ Benito Musilini, hirohito, hitler
Nazi Germany
the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler (1933-1945)
working for the common good, creates monarchy,
Catherine the Great
of russia, absolutist, holds a national council for reform, does nothing
embrace the values of democracy, don't support women' rights
Treaty of Versailles
A document signed at the end of World War I between the allies and Germany.
allied powers and leaders
ussr- Joseph stalin, england- Winston Churchhill, US- Franklin Roosevelt
Napoleon III
emperor of france, supports pope but wants to see austria weakened
crowd frees prisoners
russian family that ruled prussia starting with peter the great
Mary II
she and her husband take over england and the throne in the glorious revolution and parliament passes the bill of rights
Final Solution
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
congress of vienna
an international conference to restore peace in europe: austria, russia, britain, france
reaction to the trauma of the IR, feel deeply about everything
Seven Years War
austria wants silesia back, allies switch, prussia wins, france very weak
previous determination as if by destiny or fate
Peter the Great
first ruler of romanav's in RUssia, very cruel, created petersburg
Frans Haydn
classis musician
study of people
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
The restoration
after the english civil war, after protecorate, Charle Stuart II takes over
sans- culottes
lower middle class, skilled workers, merchants
neutral, allied with GB, if germany attacks through belgium, gb will attack
Napoleon was exiled to here and could control it
sale of indulgences
: people paying money to the Church to pay off time in purgatory for themselves or a loved one. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Trench Warfare
very intense, nothing ever happens
battles of stalingrad
allies win, german army is forced to surrender (russia)
Victor - Emmanuel
liberal and democratic,king of sradinia, driving force of unification , proclaims the kingdom of Italy
Wolfgang Mozart
classis musician
reign of terror
assassination of most extreme phase, have a committee of public safety to persacute enemies of the republic p
support strong monarchies, resistant to change, act like nobility
Elizabeth I of England
is anglican and makes anglicans solidly protestant, creates ES- makes cath illigal but doesn't enforce it
coup d' ├ętat
overthrew the Directory to establish the Consulate
napoleon I
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
triple aliance
Germany, Austria-hungary, Italy
St. Helena
nap. later forced here and where he had died
Jean- Baptiste Colbert
organizes economy of france, creates mercantilism, works for louis XVI
industrial revolution
transformation of europe and north america to create the manufacture of goods by heavy machinery
national assambly
3rd estate saying they are in charge, have more peopl
created by louis XIV, intended to intimidate
James I
st, - The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he succeeded the heirless Elizabeth I as the first Stuart king of England.
Leanardo da Vinci
One of the most famour artists in the Renaissance era. writer, scientist, and inventor (famous paintings: last supper and mona lisa)
francis ferdinand
His assassination was the starting point of the war, duke of Austria
BO Midway
in pacific, us wins against japan
important german state, (protestant)
absolutist, anglican, with king
Warsaw pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Spanish Armada
attempt by catholic spain to conquer protestant england, england wins and is claimed protestant
Royal Absolutism
king has absolute and undivided power
Peace of Augsburg
agreement between catholics and protestants to divide germany into 2 religious areas
Woodrow Wilson
us president, writes the fourteen points, on how to make peace
western front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
Triple entente
Britain, France, Russia
russian campaign
russia invaded france while napoleon was ruling
Third estate
everybody else
North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO]
an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Francisco Petrarch
believes the best way to know god is to study people
cold war
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
change in science and thinking, more logic than religion, has many discoveries= church unhappy
Michelangelo Buonarotti
a famous painter and sculpter during the reniassance that expressed human emotions such as anger , sorrow, and strength in his paintings and sculptures. His most famous work is a mural on the ceiling of the Cistine Chapel in the vativan Palace in Rome. It cover 6000 sq. ft. and is made up of 145 seperate paintings
Canterbury tales
written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer, English, writes satire
Otto von Bismark
hired to unify Germany by will I (prussia)
parliament, puritan

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