This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Reformation and Modern Church History Final Questions 27-43


undefined, object
copy deck
27 Via media
what the Church of England was often called during the Elizabethan era in the last half of the 16th century. Literally means the “middle way”.
27 The idea of “Via Media”
Church of England saw themselves as midway between the extremes of Puritanism and Catholicism
27 Anglican distinctives
theology: 39 Articles were basic though moderate confession of the Church of England. Church Polity: scripture, tradition, and reason together dictated. Public worship: concern for liturgical consensus. Spirituality: Andrews, Donne, Herbert, Walton
27 The Anglican mind concerned with
comprehensiveness, love of beauty, grace, moralism
28 Historical definition of Puritanism
a “spiritual movement” which developed under Elizabeth I, blossomed in the Interregnum, and withered in the persecution between the Restoration and Toleration.
28 Elizabeth I reign
1558 for 45 years
28 Interregnum dates
1640’s and 50’s
28 Restoration date
28 Toleration date
28 Beginnings of Puritanism
not originally separate from the Anglican Church but a group within it whose goal was to push the reform begun under Edward VI to greater perfection in worship and church discipline, establish righteousness in culture, and convert everyone to a vigorous evangelical faith.
28 Puritan disappointment, disillusionment, and despair
disappointment with Elizabeth – didn’t complete good beginnings of Edward VI – Disillusionment with James I: Millenary Petition asked James to continue and further the reform of the church but James proved to be less than tolerant of any divergence from “official” church positions. – Despair with Charles I: Appointed archbishop Laud who ruled church the way Charles ruled state. High-church movement and Armenian theology begins to infiltrate church.
28 What went wrong with puritan movement
division in ranks and mixture of religion and politics
28 Restoration of 1660
Charles II, son of executed king, returns after Cromwell.
28 Act of Uniformity
1662, said that all English ministers had to conform to Anglican ideal
28 Great Ejection
1662, ministers (some 2000) who didn’t conform to Anglican ideal were removed from their pulpits.
28 The Puritan mind concerned with
thoroughness, biblical worship, grace, and law
28 John Donne born
28 John Donne Writings
Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions and Several Steps In My Sickness Death’s Duel, or A Consolation To The Soul Against The Dying Life and Living Death Of The Body
28 John Donne Position
Dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London
28 Great preacher and poet who was dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London
John Donne
28 George Herbert lived
17th century
28 Richard Baxter lived
17th century
28 Oliver Cromwell lived
17th century
28 John Owen lived
17th century
28 John Bunyan lived
17th century
28 George Herbert Writings
The Country Parson
28 Wrote The Country Parson
George Herbert
28 Wrote Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions and Several Steps In My Sickness
John Donne
28 John Owens’s writings
The Death of Death in the Death of Christ The Savoy Declaration
28 Wrote The Death of Death in the Death of Christ
John Owen
28 Wrote The Savoy Declaration
John Owen
28 John Bunyan writings
The Pilgrim’s Progress, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Sinner and the Spider, The Pilgrim Hymn, Mr. Bunyan’s Last Sermon.
28 Wrote The Pilgrim’s Progress
John Bunyan
28 Wrote Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
John Bunyan
28 Wrote The Sinner and the Spider
John Bunyan
28 Wrote The Pilgrim Hymn
John Bunyan
29 Andrew Melville lived
29 Greatest Scottish Presbyterian leader after John Knox
Andrew Melville
29 Under his leadership, Scottish Presbyterianism was perfected in the Second Book of Discipline in 1581
Andrew Melville
29 Andrew Melville led the fight
by Scottish Presbyterians to have authority within their own churches without the interference or control of the king.
29 Melville in 1596
met with King James and reminded him that Christ was king of the church
29 Melville in 1607
exiled by King James to tower of London where he remained until his death in 1622
30 Who were the Covenanters?
those who, after the Restoration held out for a pure revival of the church in Scotland, over and against the Resolutioners, who thought perhaps some compromise could be reached with the Episcopalians.
30 They alone had the courage to challenge the oppression of the Stewarts
the covenanters
30 The Covenanters were also called
the “protestors”
30 The Covenanters stood opposite the
30 Bass Rock
Covenanter prison
30 Battles of Rullion Green (Pentland Rising) and Bothwell Bridge
battles in which small covenanter armies fought and lost.
30 “The Killing Time”
the period of Scottish history in which many Covenanters lost their lives.
30 Expelled during the time of the restoration because they would not agree with the Episcopalians
“outed ministers”
30 Preached outside, in secret, often hidden away in the highlands and the moorlands
“outed ministers”
30 Time of the two Martyrs named Margaret
the “Killing Time” – period during the Restoration
30 Covenanters could judged fanatical and extreme but
they alone had the courage to challenge the extreme oppression of the Stewarts.
28 Great puritan names
Milton, Owen, Baxter, Bunyan, and Flavel.
31 Met in the Netherlands for about six months in 1618-19
Synod of Dordt
31 Synod of Dordt met
for about six months in 1618-19
31 Background of Synod of Dordt is clash between these groups
two groups of Dutch Christians: Remonstrants and Counter-Remonstrants
31 Jacob Arminius lived
31 Background of Jacob Arminius
from Norway, went to Geneva where he studied with Beza and became strict Calvinist. Shifted his views when he was asked to write an answer to an anti-Calvinist and became less convinced of Calvinism himself. Appointed professor of theology at the University in Leiden and clashed with Calvinist colleague Franciscus Gomarus. After Arminius died, his followers put forth a document called the Remonstrance so that their views could be better understood and accepted in the Netherlands.
31 Followers of Jacob Arminius put forth this document so they could be better understood in the Netherlands
the Remonstrance
31 Five points of the Remonstrance
1) God did not elect individuals 2) Christ died for all 3) Faith is a gift of God, but 4) Faith is resistible 5) Perseverance is unclear.
31 Summarize Main point of the Remonstrance
God does not choose anyone but makes it possible for everyone to choose him.
31 Synod of Dordt was called by
the nationalist and anti-catholic Prince Maurice of Orange
31 Classic example of Calvinist vs. non-Calvinist view of soteriology
Remonstrance vs. Counter-Remonstrance issue
31 Ecumenical “reformed” synod consisting of different delegations of reformed theologians. Arminians were only present as defendants
the Synod of Dordt
31 Out of this council came the famous Five Heads of Doctrine
Synod of Dordt
31 Unanimous view reached (except for some minor differences over things like infra and supra lapsarian) at
Synod of Dordt
31 These answers to the five points of the Remonstrance, rearranged, produce the five points of Calvinism
the Five Heads of Doctrine
31 The Five Heads of Doctrine
from: 1)God’s electing purpose not conditioned by anything in the sinner (“not founded upon foreseen faith”) 2)Christ’s death sufficient to save the world but efficient only for the elect (“to bring them infallibly to salvation”) 3)Mankind is corrupt (“incapable of any saving good”) 4)The Holy Spirit irresistibly gives the gift of faith to the elect (who are “unfeignedly called”) 5)Those justified will be preserved to the end (“But God is faithful, who having conferred grace, mercifully confirms and powerfully preserves them therein, even to the end.”)
31 Overall thrust of the canons of Dordt/Five Heads of Doctrine
It is God who saves us by fulfilling His plan. God Saves sinners.
31 The rest of the work of the Synod of Dordt was divided into
Pro-Acta Work and Post-Acta Work
31 The Pro-Acta Work of the Synod of Dordt
approved new translation of the Bible, organized catechetical instruction, established preparation and qualifications for candidates for the ministry.
31 The Post-Acta Work of the Synod of Dordt
established a definitive text of the Belgic Confession, set guidelines for Sunday observance (moderate between puritan and continental positions on Sabbath) and adopted a new church order (Presbyterian, though that word isn’t usually used but is called “Reformed” church order in the Dutch churches.) – an attempt at freeing the church from Erastian control.
32 Occasion of Westminster Assembly
conflict between Stuart King Charles I and Parliament over the issues of representative government vs. royal absolutism and religious freedom vs. ecclesiastical tyranny. These two issues had come to a boiling point in the 1640s and resulted in civil war between parliament and king.
32 Long Parliament wanted to create
new government (first with the king, then without him after 1649) and new church of Reformed nature.
32 Called the Westminster Assembly
Long Parliament
32 Date of Westminster Assembly’s beginning
July 1, 1643
32 Where was Westminster Assembly
Westminster Abbey in London, first in Chapel of Henry VII, then in the Jerusalem Chamber when weather became cold.
32 How many members of the Westminster Assembly
121 Divines
32 Political context of the Westminster Assembly
Called by Long Parliament to resolve conflict over representative vs. absolutist government and religious freedom vs. ecclesiastical tyranny
32 Religious sects at time of Westminster Assembly
conservative Anglicans, mainstream Presbyterians and Congregationalists, radical Baptists and Quakers, most radical fringe: levelers, diggers, and fifth-monarchy men
32 Became major political force working to create new government in 1640’s
Long Parliament
32 Differences amongst the Westminster divines
minor in theology, major in polity
33 Work of the Westminster Assembly
1. preaching and prayer 2. Revision of the Thirty-Nine Articles 3. Creation of “The Four Points of Uniformity”
33 The Four Points of Uniformity
Form of Church Government, Directory For Public Worship, Confessions of Faith, Catechisms
33 Perhaps the most difficult and longest portion of work of the Westminster assembly
Form of Church Government.
33 Westminster Assembly was tasked to reform four major areas for the church of England
government, worship, confessions of faith, and catechisms- they were to do so according to the Word of God and the examples of the Church of Scotland and other reformed churches abroad.
33 A guide for ministers to use for creating services of worship, not a liturgy but a guide for Sunday worship and a comprehensive pastoral theology
Directory For Public Worship
33 After debating over the Confession, parliament sent it back to the divines for
proof texts- five more months of work
33 Last plenary session of Westminster Assembly
Feb 22, 1649
33 Number of meetings held by the Westminster Assembly
1163 meetings over 5 ½ years
33 This undid the work of the Westminster Assembly in the Church of England
the 1660 return of the King.
33 Two distinct parts of the Church of England
Anglican party and Puritan party
34 Protestant Orthodoxy can be used interchangeably with
Protestant Scholasticism
34 Four words can be used to describe Protestant Orthodoxy
Orthodox, Scholastic, Polemic, Practical (Pastoral)
34 Scholastic method
Start with a question, then review what everyone has said on both sides of the question, then delineate the right answer.
34 What is the Value of Protestant Orthodoxy?
Careful and precise theology and spiritual nourishment
35 Amyraldianism is
the system of Reformed theology propounded by the French theologian Moise Amyraut and associates at the Saumur Academy in the seventeenth century
35 Amyraldianism is basically
Calvinism minus limited atonement
Amyraut insisted that
the chief doctrine of Christian theology is not predestination but the faith that justifies
36 Jansenists recovered
the teaching of Augustine at a time when in the Roman Catholic church so much of that was lost.
36 Cornelius Jansen
1585-1638 Dutch Catholic theologian whose greatest contribution was his book Augustine
36 greatest contribution was his book Augustine
Cornelius Jansen
36 Jansen’s views were nearly
Calvinistic, though he and his followers always denied so and stayed in the Catholic Church.
36 Jansenism was a __________ and __________movement, trying to bring the doctrine of Grace back into the Catholic Church and tried to insist on greater diligence in the Christian life and concern for the church and the way people lived
theological and reforming
36 Pascal born
in France in 1623
36 Pascal was
Scientific genius of 17th century
36 Pascal’s life
Lifetime of sickness and suffering. Died when he was only 39
36 Provincial Letters
written by Pascal Brilliant answer to Jesuit attacks on Jansenism.
36 Pascal’s Pensees
“thoughts” were put together in a book that represented the apologetical approach to Christianity that Pascal would have written if he had lived.
36 Pascal’s audience for Pensees
“modern pagans” Pascal was attempting to reach comfortable members of the new intelligencia.
36 Pascal’s message in Pensees
The problem we are unhappy, we are mortal The common solution diversion, indifference Passionate truth-seeking reason, heart The hiddenness of God The grace of God The Christian Life
37 The Enlightenment was a period of time in the late 1600’s when
the promise of science, and the progress of philosophy promised to answer the problems of the world.
37 His scientific work led into the enlightenment’s faith in Science to provide solutions
Isaac Newton
37 Two main approaches to philosophy came out of the Enlightenment
Rationalism (Descartes) – continental approach saying start with the mind and Empiricism (Locke) – 37 British approach saying begin with the external world.
37 During the Enlightenment, this began to emerge as a separate discipline from theology
37 Rationalism name
37 Empiricism name
37 Continental Enlightenment approach to Philosophy
37 British Enlightenment approach to Philosophy
Enlightenment Philosophy that says we should start with the mind and reason everything else out
Rationalism – Descartes
37 Enlightenment Philosophy that says we should begin with the external world and organize the data we observe in order to find the truth
Empiricism – Locke
37 During the Enlightenment, this began to dictate what one believed more than did the bible
37 During the enlightenment, __________ began to emerge as a separate discipline from theology
37 Provincial Letters
Pascal’s brilliant answer to Jesuit attacks on Jansenism
37 The Reasonableness of Christianity
John Locke – Theme was the centrality of morality
37 Said there was a “big ugly ditch” between history and reason
Lessing said: you can’t really trust history – there is a big ditch between what we know now and what we read about the past.
37 Said no certain knowledge possible because the senses may not represent what is actually out there
David Hume
38 Romanticism was not necessarily
a conflicting movement to the Enlightenment. It was more like a parallel movement
38 Rousseau seemed to be saying
“I feel, therefore I am”
38 The Romantic creed
the importance of feeling, the sanctity of Nature, and the role of the artist
38 Immanuel Kant wrote
Religion Within The Limits of Reason Alone – a rational Romantic philosophy
38 Friedrich Schleiemacher wrote
On Religion – Speeches to its Cultured Despisers 38 38 Friedrich Schleiemacher aught that our understanding of God and the Gospel
38 After him, there is a great deal more discussion of the subjective and personal nature of Christianity which becomes the focus of modern theology
38 Since the 18th century, we’ve had an Enlightenment mind and a Romantic heart: a split personality
Our minds believe we CAN solve problems and find answers to everything. But sooner or later there is an emptiness in the mind and soul and the Romantics teach us that we should live life according to our wants and desires.
39 Define Pietism
The seventeenth-century reaction within Lutheranism against what it considered the cold, abstract, argumentative nature of Lutheran orthodoxy. Pietism stressed "the religion of the heart," an experiential, warm, affectional, and often sentimental, view of the Faith. Pietism later spread to the Reformed churches and it was a hallmark of Wesleyanism. ...
39 Two parts of the Pietist movement
Lutheran (Spencer) and Moravian (Zinsendorf)
39 Said that Luther stressed both head and heart – not just dry doctrine
Philip Jacob Spenser
39 Began to meet with members of his church in small groups for prayer and bible study
Philip Jacob Spenser
39 “Collegiae Peietatis”
Colleges of Piety, started by Philip Jacob Spenser
39 After his time at Frankfort, became associated with the new University of Halle
Philip Jacob Spener
39 August Herman Franke became his colleague at Halle and worked with him for reform
Philip Jacob Spenser
39 Wrote Pietas Hallensis or Public Demonstration of the Footsteps of a Divine Being Yet in the World
August Hermann Franke
39 Some major Pietism advocates
Philip Jacob Spenser, Johann Arndt, August Hermann Franke, Nicholas Ludwig count von Zinsendorf
39 Wanted to show that by believing God and doing His work, Christians could show that God was still at work in the world
August Herman Franke
39 Influenced Hudson Taylor, Amy Carmichael, Francis and Edith Schaefer
August Hermann Francke
39 Moravian side of Pietist movement best represented by
Nicholas Ludwig Count von Zinsendorf
39 I have one passion. It is He.
Nicholas Ludwig Count von Zinsendorf (1700-1760)
39 Found his life’s work when 300 Moravian refuges (traced ancestry back to Jan Huss) came to his estate at Herrnhut.
Nicholas Ludwig count von Zinsendorf(1700-1760)
39 “The Golden Summer” of 1727 (as the Moravians call it) happened at his estate
Nicholas Ludwig count von Zinsendorf(1700-1760)
39 The Pietists and the Moravians – distinctives
Spiritual awakening through bible study and prayer, social concern, missions
39 Pursued Biblical Theology, as over and against systematic theology – studied the bible consecutively as it was written
the Pietists and the Moravians.
39 One hundred-year prayer meeting started in
the Golden Summer of 1727
39 Focused on community in the way they lived their lives. Adopted simple life-style and lived in communities so that they could share what they produced
39 Over half of all Protestant missionaries of the 18th century were
39 Johann Sebastian Bach lived
39 Bach composed this many cantatas
around 300
39 Cantatas are
musical sermons with words taken from the scripture lesson of the day
39 Sometimes called the “fifth evangelist”
39 His music flowed out of theological orthodoxy and biblical knowledge and personal piety
39 Often found on Bach’s music manuscripts
SDG (soli deo Gloria) and JJ (Jesu juva – Jesus help me)
40 Easiest to look at evangelical revival in England as
a series of overlapping circles consisting of the Moravians, John Wesley and the Methodists, George Whitefield and his associates, The Welsh, and The Anglican Evangelicals
40 January 1, 1739
Moravian’s “Pentecost at New Year” – a day in a day in London on which there began to be a period of zeal for outreach and growth among the Moravians
40 Fetter Lane Society
opened the way for Moravian evangelism
40 Leaders of the Moravians in England
Benjamin Ingham and John Cennick – originally worked with the Wesleys and Whitfield but eventually became Moravian leaders.
40 Wanted to bring vigor of spiritual life to the existing churches of England
the Moravians
40 Samuel and Susanna Wesley had this many children
40 Samuel Wesley was
a rector in the Church of England
40 Susanna Wesley was
daughter of a puritan divine
40 John Wesley was child number
40 Charles Wesley was child number
40 John and Charles Wesley founded this club, which included George Whitfield, at Oxford
“The Holy Club”
40 John and Charles Wesley were ordained in
the Anglican Church
40 Sent to Georgia to minister to settlers and Indians but returned home a miserable failure
John and Charles Wesley
40 Said “My heart strangely warmed” when he heard someone reading from Luther
John Wesley
40 Said “The world is my Parish” after he was converted
John Wesley
40 Wesley’s doctrinal errors
Arminian theology and entire sanctification
40 Wesley’s evangelical Arminianism said
salvation is a gift of God through Christ but 40 Grace is offered to everyone and acceptance or rejection of grace is ultimately conditioned on human choice.
40 Wesley’s “entire sanctification” based on
1 John 3:8 “He that is born of god does not sin.”
40 This Wesley was the great hymn writer
Charles wrote over 6000 hymns including “And can it be”
40 The term “Methodists”
was at first used for all supporters of the evangelical revival in England, regardless of denomination, but eventually the Moravians separated and the Methodist movement divided into a Calvinist and Arminian branch.
40 Methodist society originally gathered
at the Foundry in Moorfields, London in 1739.
40 Methodist society that met at Moorfields was originally intended
to be a group of earnest Christians within the church but originally became more like a separate church.
40 Significance of ordination of Thomas Coke
when John Wesley ordained him in 1784, rather than him being ordained by the Church of England, this made the Methodists, for all intents and purposes, a separate church.
40 George Whitefield was a friend of theirs from Oxford days
the Wesleys
40 She was a major figure in the Evangelical revival in England who rcvd. 93 letters from Whitfield
Lady Huntingdon
40 “The Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion”
Lady Huntingdon (Lady Selina Shirley)
40 Her money and influence were used to further revival in England in the 18th century
Lady Huntingdon
40 The Associate Presbytery
Group Ralph Erskine led out of Church of Scotland that is ancestor of the Associate Presbyterian Church today
40 Revival came to the national Church of Scotland in the 18th century through
William McCullock and “the Cambuslang Work”
40 Important lady who supported revival work in Scotland
Lady Glenarchy
40 Whitfield came to this city in America
40 Leaders of the Welsh revival movement
Griffith Jones – morning star of revival, Daniel Rowland – great preacher, Howel Harris – Superintendent of Trevecca College, William Williams – Hymn Writer (Guide Me Oh Thou Great Jehovah)
40 George Whitfield role in Wales
catalyst for bringing about the revival in Wales
40 Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church later called
the Welsh Presbyterian Church
40 The Anglican Evangelicals were those who
stayed in the church (but had evangelical revival theology) when the Methodists left
41-42 Major considerations of the backdrop of the First Great Awakening
Spiritual deadness, halfway Covenant, threat of liberalism
41-42 The First Great Awakening began in part when
a number of young preachers (Frelinghuysen, Tennent, and Edwards) began preaching the old gospel with a new zeal, linked in their various revivals especially by the work of George Whitefield
41-42 He linked the various revivals and produced what we call in American History “The Great Awakening”
George Whitfield
41-42 The results of the First Great Awakening
Conversions (in the context of Calvinism), Debate and controversy (especially between the Congregationalists and the Presbyterians), Social Effects (spiritual democracy), the founding of Schools (Princeton, Dartmouth, Rutgers, Brown), the preservation of Calvinism for another 100 years
41-42 Career of George Whitefield
1739-41 2nd visit at age 34 was most important – founded Bethesda orphanage in Savannah – “Gospel Ranging” life spent preaching in Scotland, England, Wales, and America – died in 1770’s after wearing himself out as an itinerant preacher – comment from entire Colonial press
41-42 Date of First Great Awakening
mid 18th century in America
41-42 Leaders of First Great Awakening
Frelinghuysen, Tennent, Edwards. and Whitefield
41-42 Major distinctives of the First Great Awakening
glory of God, work of the Holy Spirit, individual freedom and responsibility
43 Jonathan Edwards born
43 Jonathan Edwards family
ten sisters, father pastor
43 Jonathan Edwards’s geography
spent life mostly in central Connecticut and Western Mass with brief journeys to NY and NJ
43 Jonathan Edwards early education
Latin by 7, Greek and Hebrew shortly after
43 Jonathan Edwards graduated from
Yale in 1720
43 Jonathan Edwards saw doctrine of God’s Sovereignty
as horrible in childhood, but around time of graduation from Yale began to see it as exceedingly pleasant and sweet.
43 J Edwards first served
preacher in small pres church in New York for seven or eight months then returned to Yale to be a tutor for a short time, then to Mass again as pastor at about 24 years of age
43 J Edwards in Northampton
spent 23 years here – went to serve as colleague then successor to his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard
43 J Edwards marriage
1727 to Sarah Pierrepont, known for wit, piety , intelligence, beauty
43 J Edwards difficulties in ministry
wife criticized because of her flair for fashion and because six of her eleven children were born on the Sabbath day.
Jonathan Edwards spoke of it as a surprising work of God
Revival of 1734 –spread from youth to adults
43 Clashed with his church people over church discipline and the halfway covenant
J Edwards
43 J Edwards dismissed from North Hampton
43 After being dismissed from North Hampton, J Edwards went to
Stockbridge, a frontier city in far Western Mass. as missionary to the Indians
43 He was invited to succeed his son-in-law as president of College of New Jersey
J Edwards in 1757
43 Died at age 55 after only six weeks at Princeton from small pox inoculation
J Edwards
43 Books by J Edwards
A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God, Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival in New England, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, The Freedom of the Will, The Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended, A History of the Work of Redemption
43 Themes in J Edwards preaching themes
the Glory of God, Delight in God, The Judgment of God
43 Preached that God gets all the glory because of or total lack of ability to do anything
Jonathan Edwards
43 Clearly delighted to be in the presence of God and longed to communicate that delight
J Edwards
43 J Edwards most famous sermon
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
43 Sermons by J Edwards
Sinners in the hands of an Angry God, God Glorified in man’s Dependence, On a Divine and Supernatural Light, Christian Pilgrims
43 Theology of J Edwards
Independent thinker but loved Calvin, the great Puritan divines, Thomas Boston, Francis Turretin and Van Mastricht

Deck Info