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International Studies Final Review


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Continually developing set of ideas that help us make sense of the political questions that face us
political ideology
framework of meaning about politics, developed, believed, and promoted by participants
classical conservatism
-reaction to defend. Feudalism against liberalism- conserving the old order of kings, the “high born, etc.
-relationship w/ God is mediated through kings
-Promoted at first by aristocrats and church
--- Society has a natural status groups order:
- maybe divine right, maybe noble birth
- but later more likely education, good “breeding” knowing better
>>groups have rights and duties to each other
>> there is moral order to society, perhaps God-given
>> those fit to rule should rule, but should protect and care for lesser as if they were children
>> state should uphold and promote that moral order
--solidarity, shared values
-order, stability, leadership
-willingness to sacrifice for well being
classical conservatism:
opposes, argues, people, rights,
(opposed to the modern liberalist view which favors extra-constitutional reactionary changes to the status quo to reach a social goal, be it gun control, abortion, gay marriage, etc.) Argues for value of tradition ( in response to the Enlightment in Europe, when thinkers were developing the ideology of modernism which emphasizing social construction guided by abstract “reason”.) Proper formulation of government doesn’t come from abstractions such as “reason” but from time-honored development of the state of other important societal institutions such as the family and the Church. People have a greater confidence in their own power when popular authority is absolute and unrestrained
Not: kids, women, African descent (“savages”) = all equal irrational being
RIGHTS: political expression, religious freedom, and property
classical liberalism
The creation and tool of emerging middle-class. Not status groups, but the individual is prime. Building block= unit of society is the individual. Property rights and basis for capitalism
--all ppl are free + equal
-- all individuals have same inherit rights
-- politics + state built as agreement of those with rights, called citizens
-- politics and state should protect rights of individuals
-- state should be minimal: not do much more than that
>> opportunity available for everyone; no person wasted, risk taking, entrepreneurship, capitalism, pro-business, “don’t tread on me”, all fulfill maximum potential (because of right to property)Basically American libertarians,
Europeans call US liberals social democrats. US declaration of independence and constitution are CL documents.
): accept liberalism as ideal, but individual not key social unit. Liberalism ignores a reality of economic class.Alternative to liberalism: use power of state to fix class inequality. Identifies working class, whereas CLASS LIB doesn’t but wants to rid of classifying ppl.Why? State= fullest expression of public good, public spiritedness.
• - public arena is where we put aside pettiness and selfishness of economy
HOW? How to use state power:
1) Redistribute resources to invest in collective well-being
2) progressive taxation
3) protect weaker from stronger via regulation
4) “nationalize” key economic sectors (sometimes)
5) Invest in broad based human capital development
6) insulate public sphere (state) from private interests (esp. those with money)
Socialism splits into two branches:
1) radical or revolutionary socialism: lib/class conserv. Order so entrenched and unjust, must be overthrown by any means available, including violence
2) democratic socialism:
• -can use tools of the class lib order to build socialism
• -need only force class. Libs to see hypocrisy of their definition of ppl- leads to labor incorporation
socialist belief in welfare state
making sure ppl’s well-being is provided for: government’s purpose to take care of you. To make sure you go to school, to make sure you have safe living conditions. PLUS: and education that gives you job skills, university funded by the public, b/c it’s a public need to give loan if out of school or looking for work. State is in the hands of the MASSES. >> Socialism(working class) + class. Liberalism( bourgeoisie) = democratic socialism (welfare liberalism).
• -wastes human capital (Einsteins)
• -promotes conflict
• -weakens consumption
-Justice begets solidarity, willingness to sacrifice
-Rationalize economic activity and through planning
-Greater efficiency and productivity
(conservative and socialist propose same idea, but their reasons behind it are different—ex. Both want funding for schools)
VIEW ON IMMIGRATION: if you had decent wages in country, wouldn’t be a magnet for immigrants b/c ppl of the nation wouldn’t mind working the fields. BELIEVE CLASS MORE IMPORTANT THAN NATION.
mobilizational, authoritarian, hyper-nationalism
-fuses socialist role of the state with “new” idea of the nation
-no time tolerate deomocracy
-1 people, 1 common language, 1 common sense of identity, shared history, shared government.
• NATION: politically self conscious cultural, entity ID group. Cultral ID group, based on shared: 1) ethnicity 2) race 3) religion
- thinks liberalism gives us no sense of meaning and belonging b/c everyone is on same equal level.
-status group, but no longer. Classical Conservatism had it right!
-says entire nation is a status group, no mixing of nations. (far left and far right!): RIGHT SIDE: national “status group” = natural, morally positioned and superior, at top of a hierarchy –strengthen nation by ridding of Jews for example, while Italians and germans at top.
LEFT SIDE: role of state in economy, concern for disadvantaged classes , subsume class concerns to a cultural identity appeal
Fascism is more effective than socialism: achieve better economy, better health for everyone, better everything.
fascism emphasizes two things:
purification and separation.–ensures solidarity and mobilization of a population. Uses shared cultural identity to recognize society and respond to confusion and challenges of globalized, heterogeneous world
-provides new rationale for international order
-effectively compelling, rooted in real world
Nationalism as fascist lite.
Use sense of loyalty to political community as mobilizational tool, esp to command sacrifice from society. Not necessarily authoritarian, though may make arguments for it that resemble fascism. Basis for national feeling may be cultural identity/secular.
of later 20th century and beyond. Doing what is best for overall community. Decisions and actions made if social benefits exceed social costs. Emphasizes the importance of culture, tradition, values, identity in who we are and how envision development. Critical of liberalism for failing to see the importance of distinctiveness of identity and cultural identity.
• - disputes liberal and socialist claim: we will not all just “modernize” into secular, equal citizens of nation-states. Communitarian view: soaks up the best part of liberalism, sees themselves as the successor of liberalism.
• -shares with fascism an appreciation for cultural group identity
• -borrows from liberalism ideals of equality, mutual respect, and autonomy…
o –but not of individuals, instead of cultural groups
• >>making the individual sacred is a political tool for destroying classical conservatism
- ensures solidarity and mobilization of a population.
• - uses shared cultural identity to reorganize society and respond to confusion and challenges of globalized, heterogeneous world
• - provides new rationale for national and international order
• -affectively compelling, rooted in real local values, culture, heritage
• - borrows from liberalism notion of radical human equality
Communitarianism: classified as left or right?
classified as radical middle. . American liberals (or European social democrats) relate to ECONOMY (like environmental protection and public education).
Agree with conservatives generally on CULTURAL issues (support for character education and faith based programs, but not the laissez-fair capitalism)
fascism + communitarianism= what?
Equals group identity.
fascism: group identity that can be mobilized, only one identity of nation
comm.: equal different identity groups. Politically equal among groups. Still has status groups of class.. consensual gov: representatives from groups come together and make compromises.
linear path
= indiv>cap’m> indust (class conciousness)> dev’t
Dev’t is like biological growth.
Modernization: 1 path story
1. Promote Individualism!
• Human rights
• Limited gov’t
• Democracy
• Property rights, free market and capitalism
2. Accumulate capital
• investment is engine of growth
• someone must amass wealth to invest
• private sector of state= ok
• at first, esp, inequality is necessary evil
• enclosure movement
• collectivization of agriculture
3. borrow or develop technology
• -tools needed already exist
• -technology by itself= wealth generator
• -public debt= ok for productive tech...will “grow” out of debt
• - turns out didn’t happen and countries got into massive debt
EXTRA:Makes compromises with democratic socialists to make state more fair or something. Science, technology, engineering, planning= produce and benefit a better society. Come up with technology for solving problems.
Marxian theory: 1 path story
1. national law: social/economic change
2. economic class and class relations
NOT class-cultural attribute (tonya harding= trailer trash)
3. “mode of production”- generates classes
• a) what is produced
• b) with what tools
• c) who does what work
• d) who controls tools
• (determines class position: whether you control tools or use them, determines your relationship b/t them- to the means of production)
- labor value, wage labor, surplus value
- ex. Of job= making pizza-raw materials. Surplus value= value of the labor minus wage. IT is profit, which returns to capital and risk taking. OR exploitation: surplus value beyond returns to capital and risk. Leads to ALIENTAION: separation of wage laborer from product of work life. Because surplus value is determine by force rather than logic (exploitation). Many need money andare forced by conditions to take job. PRODUCING LOTS OF LABOR, BUT LITTLE WAGE.
Marxian theory: class and class struggle
A class is made up of people who are in the same position in relation to the ownership and control of the means of wealth production. The class struggle b/t the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) and the proletariat (working class) is the great lever of modern social change. As capitalism continues it will lead to the increasing misery of the working class. Leads to ALIENATION: subjugation of man by his own works, which have assumed the guise of independent things. “Estranged labor” (labor performed not freely but as a means of subsistence, the products of which are taken from the laborer- turns men (under capitalism) to be alienated from other men and from himself. MAN CAN ONLY OVERCOME ALIENATION BY DOING AWAY WITH PRIVATE PROPERTY AND CREATING COMMUNIST SOCIETY.
extra: if classes aren’t conscious of themselves, then can’t engage in helping themselves. Why marxians are frusterated: working class in US are voting for conservatists. For example, “socialized medicine” sounds bad to working class ppl b/c of weak class consoiusness. But rich ppl would pay for poor ppl’s meds.
: Either post-modern or neo-modern. Gov involvement. Thatcherite revolution in Britain: Reaganomics imitation. Turn Economy into neo-liberal theory. Taxes on business, keep workers quiet, if not: kill them. Spread to developing world with big report. “Structural adjustment”.
• 1. Institutions must be market-based, private sector whenever possible.
• 2. Markets are most efficient way to allocate resrouces and make dev’t decisions
• 3. Even public goods (education, utilitites, perhaps security/defense) best allocated by markets
• 4. Role of public sector should be absolute minimum
• 5. Technological and cultural changes flows from and follows institutional change
• 6. Poor governance, not scarcity or history-main cause of underdevelopment
• 7. Market institutions must operate on int’l scale
• 8. A rising tide can lift all boats
• 9. All actors are rational and maximize similar “utilities” regardless of culture, history, esp regardless of race/ethnicity/religion
• 10. Cause of change and theory of change is clear and organic/natural/scientific
Neo-liberal emphasis
Critiques big corporations in the same way it more commonly critiques big gov. PUSHES of a market model rooted in small scale enterprise; a capitalism of individual,. Thinks gov . is inefficient and ppl don’t have the opportunity to make certain choices. EXAMPLE: parents chose houses with good schools in district, but everyone should have a choice where their kid goes to school.
Markets exist regardless of phase, see them everyone. Neo lib says that changes in development are rooted within the culture and community, and so these “phases” don’t exist.
Neo-liberal from internet (the two)
1)close economic contact b/t the industrial core ( of the capitalist world economy) and the developing periphery is the best way to accelerate the transfer of technology which is essential for making poor economies rich. (hence all barriers to international trade should be eliminated as fast as possible).
2) Governments in general lack the capacity to run large industrial and commercial enterprises. Hence [except] for core missions of income distribution, public-good infrastructure, administration of justice, and a few others, governments should shrink and privatize.
discourse that critiques idea of developmentalism. SAYS THAT developed world is right, and has skills and knowledge needed to create a better life in developing countries. Believe that need to impose their ideas, needs, knowledge on 3rd world countries, developing countries. PRACTICES: breaking a discourse (idea that “developees” need to be able to fix their own problems, and recognize that they have problems themselves. Whereas 1st world developers should be writing checks to help them, and only when they ask for help.
Amartja sen: idea of functionings: basic goal—if you pick goal for development, where each person wants to function better. So they want to eat better, whatever…but the country needs to decide how they want to develop. LOCAL EMPOWERMENT BASICALLY: avoid giving money directly to government, and to local NGO’s.
Suspicious of universal rights.
term for post-structuralism and orientalism. A framework/belief about world. Has 3 components: 1) assumptions and beliefs
2) patterns and behavior
3) organizations that promote 1st two. EXAMPLE: SOME HABITS THAT ARE WITHOUT RULES THAT ARE BIGOTRY, LIKE SORORITIES MAY DISCRIMINATE AGAINST COLOR, BUT NOT A RULE, JUST A PRACTICE. This is a discourse because incorporates all elements of what we say, what we do , and organizations that construct discourse may be the media.
dependency theory
Marxian variant is dependency: WITHIN COUNTRIES= PATH FORWARD. Each country has to go from feudalism to capitalism to socialism. The core= bourgeoisie, capitalist countries. Produce services: aircrafts, etc. Proletariat= periphery (permanently dependent on core countries) lower skills.
Int’l trade= mechanism of exploitation. Exploitation through structurally international unfair trade. SOLUTIONS; BARGAIN FOR BETTER TERMS, AUTARCHIC DEV’T (self-orientation), south-south cooperation, and of course, revolutionary change.
antithetical to the Modernization model and emerged largely as a response to it. Underdeveloped countries are in a state of backwardness by the developed core, a core which profits from the peripheries’ cheap (between and within countries), unskilled labour and raw materials ( from those nations’ lack of a skilled workforce and industries that can process raw materials locally). Basically a worldview that suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic growth and remain wealthy. Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets to the wealthy nations, without which the latter could not have the standard of living they enjoy. First World nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. Attempts by the dependent nations to resist the influences of dependency often result in economic sanctions and/or military invasion and control. Advocate social revolution to effect change in economic disparity.
syndrome of social, economic political change which makes possible greater achievement of human potential across a society. (associated with industrialization, increased knowledge of natural world and emergence of increasingly sophisticated tools for the manipulation of the natural world).
Ways of measuring development
1) GDP per capita: goods and services produced in a society/year, divided by population.
2) Human development Index, measures: (alternative to GDP/c)
• -intended to capture level of income
• -tied to alternative conceptualization
• - annual report with different themes (aid, trade and security, cultural liberty)
3) Note= the 5 MDG as “basic human rights”
4) Giri coefficient? Key measure of inequality
• 0= perfect equality; 100= perfect inequality
5)HDI down in former soviet countries
authoritative allocation of resources
what do universal rights mean?
For liberals, one form of significance, if you fix bad governance that’s against freedom of speech, it will fix bad governance on property rights. Because of universal notion of rights. Universal rights are closely related to liberal ideology. Assume that all individuals have political rights= right to vote, sue government, free speech, right from government interference. Socialist say more than political and civic, but also economic. APPLIED IN MANY WAYS : democracy is application to universal rights. Capitalization is application of certain rights. Socialism, certain rights are applied.
Integrated rural/world development
Santa Claus, Xmas trees= synchrotism. Jesus’ birth is codified near western idea of winter solstice. When new year starts.
ppl in “developed world” are rich because have knowledge, skills, institutions. So need to go to Africa b/c helpless and poor and starving. They’re in need, we have something, so help. (discourse)
example of a discourse ( a framework/ belief about world). It is a discourse about developing world. Western discourse of what the west thought of the east. As this was happening, Western Europeans made beliefs of what the east was about, and the west was taught about this orientalism. Western sense of self was a classical conservatist view of itself, and tried to destroy this class. Conservatism order of itself. All of the stuff of the past, like noblemen and such. LIBERALISM DISSOLVES THIS STUFF, what enables itself, discover different people, start to think foreigners are weird, and western tried to westernize them (tribesmen⬦) Discourses have become more important because of the media= b/c of technology which is rapid and easier to change imagination and views on things (like sororities might see black violence on TV, change their views)
bula matari
to describe a state that is totally out of proportion to society.
Before colonialism: government, society, and economy all relatively proportionate to another.
A society that develops on its own without a government, will have colonialism. After colonialism, government is in much more control. Problem is public intervention/control over economy. Consequences of Bula Matari: Democratic instability. For example: in Senegal, 65% of GDP is government spending. (hypertrophic state: enlarged)
Bula Matari institution example: judge who takes bribes. Example, slavery, formal institutions that go with it: like the church, says slaves are okay.
Modernization pt of view: informal organization: regular practice.
Right/good org: ppl treated equally. Example: bank that gives good credit.
Modernization supports capitalism: “good institution” but shows aspects of bad.
Liberal pt of view: nobody’s forcing you to work in sweatshop= everyone created equal, don’t like something, don’t have to do it. if ppl are in sweatshops against their will, then libs against it. BUT IF YOU AREN’T HAPPY WITH YOUR WAGES, THEN GO GET AN EDUCATION, opportunities ARE GIVEN TO YOU, TAKE THEM.

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