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AP Euro; 7 Renaissance and Reformation

A selection of the bolded terms in the 2008 Princeton Review.

Chapter 7- Renaissance and Reformation


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Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520); The School of Athens
High Renaissance
the artistic style of early 16th century painting in Florence and Rome
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
author of The Book of the Courtier which offered "how-to" advice to a member of the court of the Renaissance
Great Schism
A period of division within the Catholic Church in which there was a pope and an antipope
Jan Hus
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation he questioned the infallibility of the Catholic Church was excommunicated (1409) for attacking the corruption of the clergy; he was burned at the stake (1372-1415)
Northern Renaissance
the movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones; , Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government. (p.416-417)
"Rebirth" coined by Georgio Vasari, The revival of letters, and then of art, from 14th to 16th centuries
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses and strengthened the papacy
House of, was given a monopoly over silver, copper, and mercury mines in Habsburg possesion by Charles V. However, they soon went bankrupt.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
95 Theses
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences
Peace of Augsburg
It was turning point to the historic reformation and it ended the German religious warfare in 1555. It declared that Lutheranism was a legal, permanent religion along with Catholicism. It also stated that German princes could determine the religion over his subjects.
Act in Restraint of Appeals
Declared the English monarch the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446); built first dome
Leonardo Bruni
His New Cicero identified "Classical Latin" as well as the foundations of civic humanism.
Papal States
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government
printing press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Ciompi Revolt
1378 violent struggle against Florentine government by popolo; resulted in brief tenuous control of poor over gov't
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded, wrote Utopia
John Wycliffe
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
Pope Leo X
pope who continued rebuilding st. peter's basilica in rome; declared luther a heretic and excommunicated him
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united
People who financially supported artists.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Council of Constance
brought an end to the Great Schism, tried to deal with the heresy problem by burning John Hus, caused the Hussite wars
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
German Peasant's Revolt
luther hated, products of economy and new religion
17th and 18th-century German movement in the Lutheran Church stressing personal piety and devotion
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
William Shakespeare
Most famous English writer who wrote a series of popular stage plays (romeo and juliet and macbeth)
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. (p. 447)
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Christian Humanists
The leaders of the northern Renaissance (More and Erasmus)
Italian painter + sculptor, exs.) Statue of David, Sistine Chapel Ceiling
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Schmalkaldic Wars
Civil Wars in the HRE [Luthern princes vs Catholic princes]
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island; common property
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
French Calvinists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Dark Ages
refers to Europe in Middle Ages, lack of Latin literature, lack of contemporary written history, lack of material cultural achievements in general
Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)
An English Protestant sect that stressed individual reading and interpretation of the Bible.
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
Christine de Pisan
"The City of Ladies;" Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society. Europe's first feminist, and well educated in France
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Julius II
r(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter's Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.
In Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, criticized the problems of the Church
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603 during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Henry VIII
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547 his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; Mona Lisa and Last Supper

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