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Reformation - Ch 14

Terms

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John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
Defenestration of Prague
(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
War of the Three Henrys
(1585-1589) French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Anglicanism
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
Council of Trent
(1645-63) Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Excommunication
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Simony
The selling of church offices.
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Huguenots
French Calvinists.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572. Organized by Catherine de Medici.
Nepotism
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Theocracy - A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Usury
The practice of lending money for interest.
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.

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