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pluralism; absenteeism
The holding of several benefices, or church offices.habitual absence from work
Schmalkaldic League
northern german allieance of lutheran princes that opposed the emperor's attempt to squash lutheranism and unite the HRE
Cardinal Wolsey
became Lord Chancellor in 1515 and was cardinal of the holy roman empire fired after not being able to divorce Henry and cathrine
Thomas a Kempis
author of "The Imitation of Christ" early northern christian writer who challenged individuals to live a godly life rather than focus just on knowledge
The praise of folly
humorous, yet effective criticism of corrupt practices
On the Freedom of a Christian Man
It was one of his famous pamplets in 1520. It said that only faith justifies, frees, and brings salvation through Jesus. All men are equally forgotten.
popular mysticism
christian can bridge the gap between himself and the almighty through meditation, prayer communion
a member of a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Act of supremecy
It was passed by Parliment in 1534, and it made Henry VIII head of the Church of England (Angelican Church). England broke away from the pope.
Index of forbidden books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
found christian humanism studied in latin
John Calvin
French humanist; started protestan branch in Geneva, Switzerland; author of the book INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION which became one of the most influential works of the Reformation, born in France, was apart of the reformation by starting Calvinism, Calvinists believed in many of Luther's ideas as well as predestination and that there were 2 kinds of people; sinners and saints
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
First move able type printing press; created mass production of books; was a merchant; importance is now the merchants controll what goes out; mass culture freed from Christendom
Treason Act
Act passed by Parliament that stated if anyone did not believe that the King was the supreme head of the church would be put to death.
Peasants War
Hardest thing for Luther to cope with peasants mad at new taxes revolted tried to bring in Luther
Ecclesiastical Ordinances
geneva divided church into doctors-scripture, pastors-preached, deacons-charity, elders-discipline
Queen Mary
Was catholic and thought England should be too, "Bloody Mary", called Bloody Mary because she killed poeple who weren't Catholic, Bonfires lit in celebration of her death, her half sister is Queen Elizabeth who is Anglican
Northern Humanists
AKA christian humanists because of they had preoccupation in religion close to Italian humanists
Johann Eck
He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.
Thomas More
Lord chancellor of England devoted christian Utopia ideal of what community should be like killed by King Henry VIII
Ignatius of Loyola
principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits.He was very active in fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the subsequent Counter-Reformation
Henry VIII
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. took over hungray and Austria
belief in the Christian doctrine of the millennium mentioned in the Book of Revelations
address to the German nobility
denied the three walls of Catholicism that church is superior to state and that the pope only to interpret scripture and pope can only one who can call council
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Babylonian captivity of the church
book written by Luther attacked the sacramental system and called for the reform of monasticism and for the clergy to marry
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Peace of Augsburg
1.German rulers decide if they are Lutheran or Catholic 2.If a German Ruler took property from the church before 1552 they can keep it 3.Bishops go to states of their religion 4.Lutheran is the only other religion
Book of common prayer
helped unite the Church of England with prayers and Hymns
Handbook of the Christian Knight
ERASMUS reflected reoccupation in religion de-emphasized the external forms of religion
edict of worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united
Thomas cromwell
supported anglicanism, confiscated church land and sells it to nobles, Henry VIII's chief minister
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war. went against luther with communion
Frederick the wise
elector of saxony who used the reformation for political gains, making the holy roman empire more divided rather than united
Habsburg- Valois Wars
led to the sacking of Rome because Papacy went on Francis I side took Charles away from Lutheran problems
efficacious signs of grace given to the church by christ; divine life is given to us throught them; most important signs of the holy spirit Catholicism
is the act by which a person is made deserving of salvation
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Pope paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
ERASMUS anthology of proverbs from ancient authors that showed his ability in the classics

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