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History Finals


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Cause of the Crusades
Christians wanted to regain the holy land from the muslims.
Thomas Aquinas
made the famous attempt to reconcile Aristole with the doctrines of Christianity. best known for Summa of Theology. truths arrived by reason and by faith.
oldest standing domed structure in Rome. built as a temple to worship the gods.
rule by the few.rule based on wealth. controls military as well.
christian Humanist. called the view on religion "the philosophy of Christ." believed people should live good lives. things such as relics or pilgrimages were not so important to him. Wrote THE PRAISE of FOLLY.criticized the society he believed needed the most reform.
when soldiers march shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation.
reformer. created council of 500 that supervised foreign affairs and proposed laws. composed of male citizens. created foundation for Athenian democrocy
he thought that by examining individual objects we could percieve their form. liked to classify things. wanted an effective form of gov. that would rationalize human affairs. he wrote the book POLITICS
Bloody Mary
was seen as the most important mediator between mortals and her son. Jesus Mother.
was a sculptor whose true love was philosophy. taught many people for no pay. created the socratic method. question and answer format. questioned authority. accused of corrupting the youth. sentenced to death by hemlock.
school of thought. most popular philosophy of the Hellenistic era.created by teacher name Zeno. He taught in a building that gave him the name of his teaching. concerned with how people find happiness. had to be social and good citizens.
wrote the ELEMENTS on geometry.
Veni, Vidi, Vici
I came, I saw, I conquered. Alexander The Great.
St. Ignatius
found the Jesuits
Peace of Augsburg
the end to religious warfair in Germany 1555. formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany. German states were now free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. Both had the same rights.
Black Death
disastrous and catastrophic. most devastating natural disaster in European History. Bubonic Plauge was the most common. was spread by black rates infested with fleas. usually followed trade routes. people believed it was either gods punishment of caused by the devil.
needed more land so conquered neighboring places. create military state. means high self disipline. women upheld spartan values. government was oligarchy. foreigners not welcomed
around age of 10 and worked with a master crafts person. not paid but did recieve room and board.
Magna Carta
1215 AD. was a feudal document.gave written recognition of the relationship between lord and vassal was was used to strengthen the idea of limited monarchy power.
government by the people or rule of the many. only men are citizens. if parents are citizens you are too.
captured people
Manorial System
a manor was an agricultural estate worked by peasants. serfs had to work lords land. serfts paided rent. peasants could not leave land without permission.
Hellenistic Culture
Architecture, literature, science, philosophy. kings were willing to spend money of art and buildings.
a group of five men elected every year and were responsible for the education of the youth and the conduct of all citizens.
great athenian playwrite. most famous for OEDIPUS REX
created the phythagorean theorem and taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers
famous playwrite. was controversial and questioned traditional values. portrayed war as burtal and barbaric.
after apprentice for 5 to 7 years.worked for wages for other masters. aspired to become masters. had to produce a masterpiece
means " love of wisdom" refers to an organized system of thought. were concerned with the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe.
Romanesque Architecture
they replaced flat wooden roofs with rounded barrel vault ceilings. required massive pillars and walls to hold up the ceiling. no room for windows so church was dark on inside.
found by spanish preist.believed that a new religious order of men who lived lives of porverty and were capable of preaching effectively would best be able to attack heresy-denial of chuch doctrines.
city state
Parliamentary Structure
english parliament. composed of two knights from every country and two people from every town,and all the nobles and bishops throughout town. granted taxes and passed laws.
Henry VIII
was king of england. wanted to divorce his first wife with whom he did not have a son. he got divorced and married a woman named Anne but they had a daughter as well. she would be Queen Elizabeth I. sold monasteries land to wealthy land owners.
heavily armed infantry soldiers
was a sophisticated writer. Wrote SATIRES. wrote about attacks against job dissatisfaction and greed.
found by st.francis.very popular.lived in the world.led a life of simplicity and poverty among the people.
John Calvin
Published the INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION a summary of protestants thoughts. placed much emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God. created church government in Geneva that was very successful.
means Holy Office. job was to find and try heretics and it developed a regular procedure to deal with them. if someone confessed they were to perform public penance and was subject to punishment.
first protestant faith. dependent on state authorities for growth of his church.
was a determined and decisive man who was highly intellegent and curious. fierce warrior. strong statesman. big christian.wise patron of learning. had lengthy rule. well spoken.preserved latin culture.
War of the Roses
caused by civil conflicts after the 100 years war. Noble factions faught to control the monarchy until 1485. then new dynasty was established.
when state is ruled by nobility. rule is status wealth and land is important.
greatest philosopher of western civilization. wrote REPUBLIC about his ideas on government. believed you could not live a good life without living in a just and rational state. philosophers first then warriors then workers.
an open area that served as a place where people could assemble and as a market.
accomplished painter, sculptor, achitect and art master of the Renaissance. worked with great passion and energy. painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
First Crusade
surrounded by muslims and was no way of winning
Alexander the Great
became king of Macedonia at age 20. he built Alexandria as the greek captiol of Egypt. As general, wanted to be treated just like any other soldier.
Doomesday Book
a census. First one taken in Europe.
society of Jesus found by St. Ignatius. small group of followers. took a special vow of obedience to the pope. used education to spread their message.
Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian built a defensive wall named Hadrian's Wall. kept out the Picts and the Scots
hundered years war
began between England and France. started well organized. both sides had heavily armed cavalry. Battle of Crecy. English wasted none of their arrows but english didnt have as many resources. At Agincourt the english were masters.
third crudsade
three important rulers were involved. one drowned in a river. one was captured. the other went home. Muslims leader allowed christian pilgrims free access to jerusalem
eliminated the idea that special holiness was associated with celibacy and had abolished both monasticism and the requirement of celibacy for the clergy.
means rebirth. created urban society, recovery from the plague, new view of humans emerged. new ideas, new writers, new machinery.
Dante's Divine Comedy
was in Italian Vernacular. divided into 3 major sections. Hell Purgatory and Heaven. he is lead on an imaginary journey through three realms until he reaches paradise.
second Crusade
St. Bernard got to kings to help him. campeign was a failure.
Catholic Church
Henry VIII requested that Parliament moved to finalized the break of the Catholic Church in England. replaced by Angelican Church.
Date of Romes Collapse
476 AD
author of HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN WARS. regarded as the first real history.traveled widely and questioned many people for his information. opinionative
Early Universities
first appeared in Bologna. man who taught Roman Law attracted students from all over Europe. all were men. first university was the Unversity Of Paris and then Oxford.
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Gothic Architecture
the use of flying buttresses allowed medieval architects to create a feeling of upward movement in Gothic cathedrals and distrubuted the weight. had stained glass windows. had ribbed vaults and pointed arches which allowed the building to be bigger.
Great Schism
there were two popes which caused contaversey. it divided Europe. England supported the pope in Rome and France supported the pope in Avignon. both popes either resigned or were deposed and a new pope was created.
lord and vassal relationship was made official in the public. loyalty to the lord was the chief virtue. between free men and implied no sense of servitude. set of unwritten rules. vassals had to make payments to the lord but lords had to grant land to vassals and protection.
dynamic and activist was spread everywhere. replaced other protestantisms.
William the Conqueror
lead heavily armed knights on a Normand Conquest defeated King Henry and his foot soldiers. then crowned King of England. made all nobles swear an oath of loyalty. developed better taxation.
created by Alexander.derived from word "intimate Greeks." Hellenistic rulers encouraged a massive spread of Greek colonists to southwest Asia.
causes of Romes collapse
poitical upheavals- 22 bad emperors. Economic and military problems- plague, farm production decline, few armies. inflation- rapid increase in prices
dedicated to the godess Athena. was expression of Athenian pride. also dedicated to Athens and Athenians.Shows principles of classical architecture.
Henry II
increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king's court and also devised means for taking property cases from local courts to the royal courts. expanded kings power.
normandy invasion
1066 AD. william of normandy deafeated king harold and his foot soldiers. william was then crowned king of england.
Pyrrhic Victory
a victory, but at high stakes.
set up new religious services replacing the Catholic Mass. gained support of many German rulers. Peasants revolted but he was on lords side
was sculptor, painter, achitect, inventor, and mathmatician. considered well-rounded universal person.
considered greatest historian of the ancient world. athenian general. wrote HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. about war and politics. very factual
stong military leader who became the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity. refused at first but wife wanted him to adopt it. prayed to god if he won his battle that he would convert. he won so he converted.
father of Italian Renaissance humanism. helped develope and foster humanism. looked at forgotten latin manuscripts. the intellectual life to him was one of solitude.
Homers Iliad and Odyssey
were first great epic poems of early greece. based on stories that had been passed down from generation to generation. used stories of the Trojan War to create poems. created history.
Joan Of Arc
daughter of peasants. religious. experienced visions. wanted to help in French Army. Inspired by Joans faith, were able to capture Orleans. Captured by English on charge of witccraft. sentenced to death.
Canterbury Tales
written by Chaucer in English Vernacular. about 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of St. Thomas at Canterbury.
Peloponnesian Wars
started in 431 BC.Spartans surrounded Athens. Athens stayed behind its walls. the second year, Athenians fleet was destoryed and Athens surrendered. the war was over.
Battle of Hastings
william of Normandy vs. King Harold and William defeated him and his foot soldiers.
Angelican Church
in protestant direction. favored by protestant doctrines. also the church of England
was unified peninsula of attica. government was aristocracy. owned best land and contolld sold into slavery because of debt.
on top of a hill and was a fortified area. served as a place of refuge during an attack
he was a dominate figure in athenian politics. during pericles time, Athenians saw their hight of power and briliance.made it possible for poor citizens to take part in public affairs.
if finished the masterpiece and how good it was. showed if they were ready to be a master.
means "walled enclosure." merchants and artistans in citites with new walls built to protect the city.

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