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Byzantium Chapter 7


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Birth of the Byzantine Empire
300's - Roman empire begins to split in half
-East - Constantinople rule
-West Roman rule
400's - West - besieged by Northern
tribes - arts and literature
- East - unscathed - arts and
literature flourish
492 - final collapse of West
500's - Justinian and Theodora
Justinian and Theodora

what did they do/have built?
unified east and west
launched building projects
-great monuments
Hagia Sohpia in Constantinople
The Ravenna Churches (Italy - near Venice)
Byzantine empire

oriented towards where
Byzantine Empire - towards Greece (east)

Constantinople - was Istanbul
The Hagia Sophia

dates built

significance - crowning achievement of Justinian's reign

larget building ever constructed in that empire
The Hagia Sophia


what about it architecturally makes is special?
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus

unified 2 ways of making church
The Hagia Sophia

interior aesthetic
* 1. Vast volume of nave
2. walls extremely high
* 3. curves and lines interact with
4. nature of dome - windows at base
-light from all angles
-dome "floats"
Victor Was Crying Loudly
Justinian quote re Hagia Sophia
"Solomon, I have outbuilt you."
400-500 - on next slide
300's - Roman Empire split in 2
-East - Constantinople
-West - Rome
402 - Capital of West shifts to Ravenna
- b/c of northern attacks
- started building things

becomes home to some of West's greatest buildings/monuments
*Mausoleum of Golla Placidia (425-426)
Neonian Baptistry (Orthodox) (450's)
Arian Baptistry
Tomb of Theodoric (early 500's)
*Church of Sant' Apollinare Nuoro (533-49)
*Church of San Vitale (525-47)

Maverick Nathan
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia

yrs built
who to
who by
425 - 426
devoted to St. Lawrence
built by Justinian and Theodora
Mausoluem of Galla Placidia

exterior - not impressive - has sunk into soil

interior - some of the greatest works of art
-relfect light in unusual ways
-covered wall to wall w/ mosaics
-deep sky blue - dominant color

barrel vaulted ceiling - Persian carpet design
-blue, medallions
-symbolize constellations
Christ as the Good Shepherd

what is it
where is it

Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Christ as the Good Shepherd

lunette mosaic
-semi-oval structure
framed by wave mosaic
Christ shown beardless
spiral quality of Christ's body
-sense of upward lift
abstract treatment of shrubbery, rocks etc.
no attemplt to be 3-dimensional or realistic
The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence

Mausoleum of Saint Lawrence
The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence

wave motif
persian carpet design - constellations
cabinet with 4 gospels
grid iron he was killed on - flames
grid iron
sharp lines and color changes
drapery - not naturally falling-tubular
the Church of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo

when built by
what type of building
early 500's
built by Theodoric, emperor of the Goths
basilica style structure
The Church of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo

Southwall Mosaic

characteristics (layers)
procession of male saints (lower)
prophets and apostles (btwn)
scenes from the gospels (uppers)
The Church of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo

North wall mosaic

1. procession of female saints behind the Three Magi
2. the enthroned Madonna

abstract - no individuality
works reflect the values of these Christians
-less focused on humans and human reason
-focused on God and uniformity
The Church of Sant' Apollinare

Jesus Calls the apostles Peter and Andrew
freefloating figures
The Church of Sant' Apollinare

Three Magi bearing gifts
background shallow
every surface repeated with same pattern
Church of San Vitale

when built
what is it known for
built 525
octogan shaped
known for mosaics - reveal presence of Justinian
Church of Sant' Apollinare

artwork list
Southwall mosaic
Northwall mosaic
Theodoric's palace
Jesus calls the apostles Peter + Andrew
Three Magi bearing gifts

The Saints Never Tempt Jesus
Church of San Vitale

artwork list
Christ enthroned
Emperor Justinian and courtiers
Empress Theodora and retinue
Church of San Vitalis

Christ enthroned
beardless Christ
clothed in purple
-become imperial color
4 rivers of paradise
book of 7 seals - Revelation
floating people
tubular drapery
shallow scene - decoration behind
faces - impersonal
Church of San Vitale

Emperor Justinian and courtiers
abstract, stylized
Justinian = mediator btwen Church and state
-thinks he is Christ's figure on earth-halo
-robed in purple - royalty/deity
gold - symbolizes royalty
green - outside world
Church of San Vitale

Empress Theodora
what devices "monumentalize" the figures?
elongated proportions
slender feet - royaly - not working
faces expressionless
wearing lavish costumes
Church of San Vitale

How are Justinian and Theodora elevated above the sorrounding figures?
wearing royal purple
lavish jewelry
folds of drapery of Theodora - more lavish
put in central position
wearing different shoes
more active - holding something
St. Augustine

known as
"Bishop of Hippo"
St. Augustine

life in context
look in notes if you really care
Augustine Bio Overview

lived in...
type of life
literary output
b AD 34 in Algeria - tumultuous political conditions
divided household
-mother Christian, father pagan
led carnal life
-felt guilty as he aged
-wants to embrace pure life
St. Augustine's "Confessions"

What kind of work is it
wrties abotu interior thought
St. Augustine's "Confessions"

what has it been called
the greates single contribution to Western Philosphy
also one of the most dramatic turns in world philosphy
-writes abotu what he thinks and feels
-allows admission into his psyche
St. Augustine's "Confessions"

What new idea is introduced
it's only the hereafter that matters

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