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PIRATES World History Final Exam


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the medieval expeditions where Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
three-field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was succesively planted with a winter crop, planted with a summer crop, and left unplanted.
Magna Carta
\"Great Charter\" - a document guarenteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215
a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
the effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492
Great Schism
a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family
an early Native American people who lived in the American Southwest
a symbolic picture - especially ones used as part of a writing system for carving messages in stons
a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
the everyday language of people in a region or country
a pardon releasing a person from punishment due for a sin
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola
a member of a Protestant church governed by presbyters (elders) and founded on the teachings on John Knox
the doctrin that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
Peace of Augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther
to cancel or set aside
a warrior for Islam
a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire
Taj Mahal
a beautiful tomb in Agra, India, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that the newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of Samurai
Tokugawa Shogunate
a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
a group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religiou persecution in England
French and Indian War
a conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763
middle passage
the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South Americas, to be sold as slaves - so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
triangular trade
the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
joint-stock company
a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits, but not the debts
Columbian Exchange
the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
a French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
War of Spanish Succession
a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France
a landowning noble of Russia
the period of Charles II\'s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell\'s government
habeas corpus
a document requiring that a prinsoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
absolute monarchy
a government in which a king or queen has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protects citizens\' basic rights and freedoms
Declaration of Independence
a statement of the reasons for the American colonies\' break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776
one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment
direct democracy
a government in whiche citizens rule directly rather than through representatives
social contract
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun
geocentric theory
in the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable objet located at the center of the universe
enlightened despot
one of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects
First Estate
the estate in the Estates General, consisting of the clergy (church officials)
Third Estate
the lowest estate in the Estates General, consisting of the population that were not clergy or nobles
Estates General - what is it and why did Louis XVI call it together?
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Continental System
Napoleon\'s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain\'s economy
scorched-earth policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
a direct vote in which a country\'s people have the oppotunity to approve or reject a proposal
coup d\'etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Reign of Terror
the period from mid-1793 to mid-1794 when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Industrial Revolution
the shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine
factors of production
the resources - including land, labor, and capital - that are needed to produce goods and services
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
laissez faire
the idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses
the theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if the promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
to refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demands
collective bargaining
negotiations between workers and their employers
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation - that is, to the peopl with whom they share a culture and history - rather than to a king or empire
a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially
Central Powers
in World War I, the nations of Germany and Austria-Hungary, along wiht other nations that fought on their side
Schlieffen Plan
Germany\'s military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia
unrestricted submarine warfare
the use of submarines to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an enemy\'s waters
total war
a conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
Treaty of Versailles
the peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied Powers after World War I
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I
in World War I, the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia, along with other nations that fought on their side
craft guild
an organization of individuals involved in the craft business working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members. The guilds also created plans for supervised training of new workers.
John Wycliffe
an Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the tru head of the church. He believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. Wyclife also taught that the Bible along - not the pope - was the final authority for Christian life. He helped spread this idea by inspiring an English translation of the New Testament of the Bible.
English Royal Courts and English Common Law
Henry II strengthened the courts by sending judges to every part of England at least once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes. Over time, the rulings of the judges became a unified body of law called the common law.
Problems faced by the Church
In the beginning of the 1300s, problems started to arise in the Church. To start things off, in 1300, Pope Boniface attempted to enforce papal authority on kings. King Philip retailiated by asserting his authority over the bishops. The pope responded with an official document stating that kings must always obey popes. King Philip merely sneered at this. He had the pope imprisoned and was to be brought to trial. The pope was rescued, but died a month later. King Philip persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a French pope and the papacy was moved to Avignon. The papacy remained there for 69 years. The move to Avignon greatly weakened the church. However, when reformers tried to move the papacy back to Rome, it only worsened things. The pope at the time - Gregory XI - died while visiting Rome. The College was brought together to choose a new pope while a mob outside screamed for either a Roman or an Italian. The cardinals choose an Italian - Urban VI. Many of the cardinals immediately regretted their choice as Pope Urban had such a passion for reform and an arrogant personality. The cardinals elected a second pope, this time a French one - Robert of Geneva, who took the name Clement VII. The two popes each declared the other false and excommunicated each other. (Great Schism) The cardinals again try to correct things. They wound up with three popes. Finally, with the assistance of the Holy Roman Emperor, the cardinals forced all three popes to resign and chose one new pope, Martin V.
African trade
trade cities develop on the east coast of Africa, Muslims Arab and Persian traders, Swahili created⬦blends of culture
Phillip II - who is he and what is his role in history?
He\'s the Spanish king who took control of Portugal but failed in his invasion of England.
Louis XIV
French king who was an absolute ruler
Cardinal Richelieu
chief minister of France who reduced the power of the nobles
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Chief Minister of Finance under Louis XIV
Maria Theresa - who is she and who are her adversaries?
empress of Austria, daughter of Charles VI, increased her power and reduced the nobles’ part of the Hapsburg family
Ivan the Terrible
Ruler who added lands to Russia, gave it a code of laws, and also used his secret police to execute “traitors”
Peter the Great - who was he and what was the importance of this political figure?
Leader of Russia who started westernization (use of western Europe as a model of change)
James II
brother of Charles II who took the throne after his death; was pro-Catholic
William and Mary
ruled according to the constitutional monarchy (limited ruler’s power)
Spanish Armada
Spanish fleet of ships that attacked in attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I
Charles I
King of England who was executed
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell- Leader of the Puritans
Africans in North America - how and why?
demand for cheap labor in the newly established American colonies; transported by ships
Mayan calendar
developed two calendar - a 260 day religious calendar, which consisted of thirteen 20-day months and another 365-day solar calendar, which consisted of eighteen 20-day months, with a separate period of 5 days at the end
a people that ruled over Mexico from about 900 to about 1200
Renaissance Man
a man who excelled in many fields; universal man
“powder keg” of Europe
Balkans Peninsula with a long history of national uprisings and ethnic clashes
Otto von Bismarck
used war to unify Germany and formed a Triple Alliance with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
Kaiser Wilhelm II
ruler of Germany who forced Bismark to resign. He wanted to show off Germany’s power, as a result of his letting the treat relapse, France and Russia joined forces
George Clemenceau
French representative of the allied forces
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria who with his wife Sophie, was assassinated in Sarajevo
Gallipoli campaign
effort to obtain the Dardanelles straight could then est. a supply like to Russia
Surrounding Europe
Allied forces⬦France, Britain, Russia
Birthplace of the Renaissance - where and why
the Renaissance started after the late Middle Ages, which were plagued with war and disease. People wanted to celebrate life and the human spirit. In northern Italy, writers and artists began to express this new spirit and experiment with different styles.
Karl Marx
economic thinker who wrote about a radical form of socialism
Adam Smith
philosopher who defended laissez faire economics

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jacey bailey