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Women In Christian History


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Where is Anne Hutchinson From?
Boston Area
What activity brought about her exile from Boston?
She taught a 'sunday school' type meeting (100+ people, both male and female) AND she not only reviewed the the previous sermon given by John Cotton, but explicated it.
What was so unusual about Anne Hutchinson's understanding of the Holy Spirit?
Believed that the teachings of the Holy Spirit were more important than those of Jesus
What was so unusual about Anne Hutchinson's trial?
1. multiple trials
2. not granted the rights of a protestant woman
3. pregnant during trials
What was Anne Hutchinson convicted of?
insubordination and challanging authority - both political charges
When Anne Hutchinson is exiled from Massachusetts, where does she go?
Rhode Island
What conflict caused Ann Hibbens to be convicted of insubordination?
conflict with carpenter over her refusal to pay for the 'shoddy' work on a cabinet.
What occurs two years after the death of Ann Hibben's husband?
she is accused of witchcraft (Maleficium)
Who is Ann Bradstreet?
American female poet whose work was published by her brother without her knowledge.
Why do women in the Middle Colonies experience more freedom than elsewhere at this time?
No established church in the area b/c no denominational majority, thus, no single denomination's perspective concerning women
How did Quakers view women?
spiritually equal to men, but not socially equal
What was the unusual procedure conducted by the Quakers in the situation that one spouse feels called to missions and the other does not?
prayed for a year that the uncalled would feel called

prayed for a year that the called would feel uncalled

prayed for wisdom

provided for the uncalled spouse
What was the majority religion in the Southern Colonies
Virginia - Anglican Church

Georgia and the Carolinas - depended on the governor of the area
What did the distance / issolated living of the Southern Colonies bring about from the hand of women?
religious literature for the education of the children

diaries w/ religious imagery
What was the role of women in the typical Anglican Church in the Southern Colonies?
1. no voice in church except singing
2. cared for physical structure of the Church
3. cared for the needs of the priest
4. religious instruction of the Children
5. responsible for the moral behavior of the men of their family
What woman began a Separatist Baptist Church along with her husband and brother in Sand Creek, N. Carolina?
Martha Stearns Marshall
What was the first Great Awakening also called?
The Puritan Revival
What was the overall effect of the 1st GA?
tied the northern colonies together by giving them something in common
How many of the converts during the 1st GA were women and why?
2/3 were women

- felt included in group for 1st time because ALL are sinners
- emotional response required - need to FEEL saved
What groups formed as a result of the 1st GA?
external organizations intended for the discussion of theology between women
What famous orator traveled during the 1st GA and what did he believe about women?
Johnathan Edwards

women should not speak or preach in public and those that do are "rugged, daring, and presumptuous."
What two brothers began the Wesleyan Revival?
John and Charles Wesley
What was mama Wesley's name?
What movement did the Wesley brothers begin and what did it eventually become?
began a movement within the Anglican Church

eventually became the Methodist Church
How many people were involved in the Bible Study led by mama and papa Wesley?
200+ people (men and women)
Which one of the Wesley brother's parents was the better teacher?
Suzanna Wesley
What was the primary theological emphasis of the Wesleyan Revival?
We are all sinners, but we have a choice to choose or reject God. We are not helpless. We have free will.
What were John Wesley's 3 unique beliefs about women?
women able to:
1. lead a prayer in public
2. exhort sinner and believer (lead them in prayer at the altar) IF WOMAN
3. preach if no other male is willing to do so (male preacher more culturally accepted)
What was John Wesley's unique view concerning women married to men who are not strong believers?
can disobey husband's will if she believes it to be contrary to the will of God
Who is Charles G. Finney?
Methodist revivalist.
Only willing to preach if women allowed to: 1. pray 2. exhort women believers 3. give public testamony
What kind of Christian living did Charles G. Finney emphasize?
practical Christianity - fighting social evils
What were the two reforms most populated by Christian women at this time?
1. Missions
2. Temperance
What does WCTU stand for?
Women's Christian Temperance Union
When and where was the WCTU founded?
1874, Cleveland
Who is Frances Willard?
Corresponding Secretary for the WCTU for 20 years

Most influential social reformer in American History

Evangelical Methodist
What were the two positions that split the WCTU? Who won?
liberals wanted to focus upon sufferage and social issues such as prostitution

conservatives wanted to focus upon temperance

conservatives won
What are the arguments against Sufferance?
1. A woman's place is in the home
2. Strict interpretation of Paul's 'silence' passage
3. Women are incapable of rational thought, too emotional
What changes help the Sufferage movement?
1.Charles G. Finney's demands for women's public participation

2.Margaret Fell's "Women in the 19th C." about women in political decision-making

3.Training in volunteer organizations


5.Reform experience
When was the Women's Rights Convention?
Where was the Women's Rights Convention? And why?
Seneca Falls, NY
home of Elizabeth Caddy Stanton
What did Elizabeth Caddy Stanton write?
Women's Bible
Why was there more resistance to the Sufferage movement in the the South and East?
1. fear that women getting the vote, then blacks will demand the vote

2. southern bell steriotype made worse by "lost cause" mentality after Civil War

3. North:
women more educated (immigrants)
women worked (poorer)
Definition of Seminal Article
Article from which much thought grew
What change occured between the Colonial Period and the Industralization that brought about the loss in the value of the work done by women in the home?
1.offices and factories - men go AWAY from home to work.

Thus, work is no longer associated with the home

Thus, what women do (because it is associate with home) has less value
What effect did the increase in a woman's leisure time have on her life?
more involved with the Church and "good works" such as reform movements and missions support
Who started the first missionary society?
Mary Webb
What was the name of the first missionary society?
The Boston Female Society for Missionary Purposes
Why were women's missionary societies often called Mite Societies?
Mark 12 - Widow's mite
What happened to the women's missionary societies in the mid-1800s?
absorbed into denominationally established boards
What was the purpose of the women's missionary societies?
1. evangelize to the female world

2. uplift the moral tone of a country by educating their women and male children

3.epand the opportunities for women in religion
What were the benefits of these women's missionary organizations?
1.evangelize the world for women (administration, finance, etc.)

3.establishment of women's networks across the country
What type of women were the first to be sent as missionaries?
widows and married women
When unmarried women were sent as missionaries what qualifications were made?
sent under the supervision of married male missionary
What areas of work did women missionaries engage within the foreign field?
1.evangelization of the secluded women of women in realms of academia, domestic, and industry

3.medical care for the very poor
What was the goal of all female missionary work?
evangelize and change the females of a country so that they, in turn, will influence their children and husbands
What are the 3 steps in salvation?
1.justification - being made right through Jesus Christ, cleansing of sin

2.sanctification - discipleship

3.glorification - being in presence of God
Who initiated the Holiness Movement?
Phoebe Palmer
What institution is Phoebe Palmer known as founding and with whom?
Salvation Army

with the Booths
What are the emphasized characteristics within the Holiness Movement?
1.Sanctification can be an immediate experience (Charles Finney saw it as necessarily a long, slow process)

2.Sanctification usually accompanied by gifts from the H.S.
What did the new groups that emerged from the Holiness Movement hold in common?
1.spiritual discipline of the H.S.'s free will to choose or reject God
What meeting did Phoebe Palmer hold that continued for 60 years and was eccumenical in nature (a.k.a. it involved many denominations)
Tuesday Meeting for the Promotion of Holiness
How did Phoebe Palmer understand holiness?
in terms of 'perfect love' demonstrated by living a Christ-like life
How did Phoebe Palmer explain her revival participation?
always accompanied by her husband

when she stood up to speak, she was 'exhorting' in preparation for her husband
What was Phoebe Palmer's contribution to the literary world?
1.edited "Guide to Holiness" (3,000+ subscribers)

2.The Way of Holiness

3.Promise of the Father
What was the theological emphasis of the 2nd Great Awakening?
Holy Living
Definition of Sanctification
A life of perfect love
What passage was used to support the virtuous woman described in the Cult of True Womanhood? And what was the problem with this analyzation of the passage?
Proverbs 31

omitted portions of the passage
What is the innate demand of Fundamentalism?
a hierarchy
What factors allowed women to recognize that they were not inferior to men?
1.increased education for women

-due to growth of public education, thus, less satisfied with their conditions
- post secondary edu for women

2.Charles Finney

3.Reform Movement and Missions Organizations
-raise money

4.Economic Development produces an expanding middle class that has leisure time to dedicate to reform and missions organizations
What was a primary objection against women sufferage?
it will tear the family apart
What is the Declaration of Sentiments?
document written at the first formal sufferage meeting.

parallel structure to declaration of independence

outlines what needs to be addressed in terms of women's rights
What women were refused entry into an abolitionist meeting that they were elected to attend as official representatives?
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Caddy Stanton
What two sisters wrote several treatises on the decision to leave behind sufferage for abolition?
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
What three denominations responded to early feminism with great fervor?
and Episcopal clergy
Who was Catherine Beecher?
What was her opinion on the proper sphere of women?
strong abolitionist
believed that a woman's proper sphere is the private domestic and, thus, female education should not be scholarly.
How did early feminists defend their position using the Bible?
1.listed prominent women in the Bible

2.addressed Jesus' attitude toward women

3.gave specific counter arguments to 1Cor. 14:34 and 1Tim 2:11-12

-noted that the brethen didn't take those passages literally when it came to teaching Sunday school or sining in a choir

4.presented new arguments FOR woman's rights
-Golden Rule
-Gal 3:28
-Pentecostal argument from Joel 2 and Acts 2 (H.S. gives gifts where the Spirit chooses)
What were the negative messages women received from the Church concerning God's call to Pastoral Leadership?
1.not scriptural
2.isn't womanly
3.told to seek God's will, but denied entry into vocation of calling
4.little effort to place women ministers
5.generally paid much less than men
Problems that women pastors face:
1.questioning female authority
2.ingrained feeling of inferiority as an American Woman
3.strong competition b/c few jobs open for women
4.question of competence in pastoral role
5.lack of experience among parishioners in relating to female cleric
What biblical event do conservative churches point to in order to explain their rejection of women as ministers?
restriction of women due to Eve's sin
What are three reasons why we should use inclusive language?
1.will help disolve barriars that sustain idea that women are 'other'

2.reinforce idea that all are made in God's image and are one body and family (Gal 3:28) us to know God more deeply
What denomination changed their hymnals in order to use more inclusive language?
Modern Methodist Church
As the business world is requiring inclusive language at an increasing rate, what are the consequences for the Church?
also increase in inclusive language
How many times is "Father" used in the New Testament?
What arguments are used to keep inclusive language from altering the way that we speak about God?
1.its scriptural
2.Trying to change language is a trend
3.Term 'father' is an ideal, not a reference to body anatomy
4.Divine Order is maintained God language
5.using female characteristics to refer to God diminishes idea of transcendence (female deities connection with earth)

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