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ESC Chapter 5 P 101-6, 111-126


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A sandstone containing more than 25% feldspar
The formation of parallel layers of sediment as particles settle to the bottom of the sea, a river, or a land surface
A pattern of interbedded and vertically stacked layers of sandstone, shale, and other sedimentary rock types
Bedding sequence
A shallow-water sediment consisting primarily of two calcium carbonate minerals- calcite and aragonite- in variable proportions
Bioclastic sediment
The process by which organisms rework existing sediments by burrowing through muds and sands
A marine setting where calcium carbonate, principally of biochemical origin, is the main sediment
Carbonate environment
An extensive flat, shallow area where both biologoical and nonbiological carbonates are deposited
Carbonate platform
A sedimentary rock formed from the accumulation of carbonate minerals precipitated organically or inorganically
Carbonate rock
A sediment formed from the accumulation of carbonate minerals precipitated organically or inorganically
Carbonate sediment
A major chemical diagenetic change in which minerals are precipitated in the pores of sediments, forming cements that bind clastic sediments and rocks
New chemical substances that form by precipitation when some of a rock's components dissolve during weathering and are carried in river waters to the sea
Chemical and biological sedimentary environment
The dissolved product of weathering precipitated from water (usually seawater) by chemical reactions and formed at or near its place of deposition
Chemical sediment
The weathering that occurs when the minerals in a rock are chemically altered or dissolved
Chemical weathering
A sedimentary rock made up of chemically or biochemically precipitated silica
A rock made up exclusively of clay-sized particles
A biochemically produced sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of organic carbone formed by the diagenesis of swamp vegetation
A decrease in the volume and porosity of a sediment that occurs when the grains are squeezed close together by the weight of overlying sediment
A sedimentary rock composed of pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The lithified equivalent of gravel.
A broad, flat sand and mud covered platform that is a slightly submerged part of a continent and extends to the edge of the continental slope
Continental shelf
A sedimentary structure consisting of bedded material deposited by currents of wind or water and inclined at angles as large as 35 degrees from horizontal
The physical and chemical changes- including pressure, heat and chemical reactions- by which buried sediments are lithified into sedimentary rocks
An abundant carbonate rock composed primarily of dolomite and formed by the diagenesis of carbonate sediments and limestones
A sedimentary rock formed from evaporite sediments
Evaporite rock
An accumulation of materials precipitated inorganically from evaporting seawater and from water in arid-region lakes that have no river outlets
Evaporite sediment
Group of tiny single-celled organisms that live in surface waters and whose secretions and calcite shells account for most of the ocean's carbonate sediments
A fluid organic sediment formed by the diagenesis of organic material in the pores of sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstone and limestone
A bed that formed horizontal or nearly horizontal layers at the time of deposition, in which the coarsest particles are concentrated at the bottom and grade gradually upward into fine silt
Graded bedding
The coarsest clastic sediment, consisting of particles larger than 2 mm in diametere and including pebbles, cobbles and boulders
A sandstone composed of a heterogeneous mixture of rock gragments and angular grains of quartz and feldspar, the sand grains being surrounded by a fine-grained clay matrix
A sedimetary rock that usually contains more than 15% iron in the form of iron oxides and some iron silicates and iron carbonates
Iron Formation
A biochemical sedimentary rock lithified from carbonate sediments and composed mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite
A sandstone that contains many fragments derived from fine-grained rocks, monstly shales, volcanic rocks and fine-grained metamorphic rocks
Lithic sandstone
The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation
A clastic sediment, mixed with water, in which most of the particles are less than .062 mm in diameter
A blocky, poorly bedded, fine-grained sedimentary rock produced by the lithification of mud
An organic fluid formed by the diagenesis of buried organic material that migrates into reservoirs in porous crustal rocks
A sedimentary rock that consists entirely or partly of organic carbon-rich deposits formed by the decay of once-living material that has been buried
Organic sedimentary rock
A rich organic material that contains more than 50% carbon
A chemical or biochemical sedimentary rock composed of calcium phosphate precipitated from phosphate-rich seawater and formed diagenetically by the interaction between muddy or carbonate sediments and the phosphate-rich water
Weathering in which solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition
Physical weathering
The % of a rock's volume consisting of open pores between grains
A sandstone made up almost entirely of quartz grains, usually well sorted and rounded
Quartz arenite
A moundlike or ridgelike organic structure constructed of the carbonate skeletons of millions of organisms
A sedimentary structure consisting of a very small dune of sand or silt whose long dimension is at right angles to the current
The total amount of dissolved substnaces in a given volume of water
A clastic sediment consisting of medium-sized particles ranging from .062 to 2 mm in diameter
A clastic rock composed of grains of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, bound together by a cement of quartz, carbonate, or other minerals, or by a matrix of clay minerals. The lithified equivalent of sand.
A region of considerable extent ( at least 10,000 square km) where the combination of deposition and subsidence has formed thick accumulations of sediment and sedimentary rock
Sedimentary basin
Any kind of bedding or other surface (such as cross-bedding, graded bedding, or ripples) formed at the time of deposition
Sedimentary structure
A fine-grained clastic rock composed of silt plus a significant component of clay, which causes it to break readily along bedding planes
Clastic sediments produced by the weathering of rocks composed largely of silicate minerals
Siliclastic sediments
A clastic sediment in which most of the grains are between .0039 and .062 mm in diameter
A clastic rock that contains mostly silt and looks similar to mudstone or very fine grained sandstone. The lithified equivalent of silt.
The tendency for variations in current velocity to segregate sediments according to size.
The general process that breaks up rocks into fragments of various sizes by a combination of physical fracturing and chemical decomposition

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