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3 features that make science different from other human activities
1. only has to do with the natural world 2.scientistcs organize information carefully//orderly and look for patterns 3.scientists use explanations that can be tested
the difference between qualitative and quantitative observations
qualitative: characteristics/descriptions quantitative: #s and measurements
2 ways a hypothesis can be tested
1. performing controlled expirements 2. gathering more info
using senses to gather info in a careful and organized way
study of living things
3 qualities that are desirable in a scientist
1. open-minded 2. skeptical 3. ask questions
what was the hypothesis of spontaneous generation
that some life is born from nonliving matter
manipulated variable ex. from Redi's experiment
a variable that is diliberatly changed. guaze or cover
responding variable ex. from Redi's experiment
what happens or the ending result whether maggots appear or not
what did Redi conclude
flies make the maggots after all
what did Needham conclude
that microorganismz appear from nonliving things (he was wrong)
what did Spallanzani conclude
that microorganisms came from the air, the gravy was not what produced them
what was Pasteur's research impact on science and peoples lives
now people 'pasteurize' milk, saved wine&silk industries
why should experiments be able to be repeated
so if mistakes happen, they can be corrected next time
why should scientists record and publish their experiments and results
so that others can try to correct them and so that information isn't lost
8 charcteristics of living things
1. reproduce 2. are made up of cells 3. maintain homeostasis 4. change over time 5. are based on universal genetic code 6. grow and develope 7. obtain and use materials and energy 8. respond to environment
difference bewteen unicellular and multicellular organisms
uni: single celled multi: many celled (animals and plants)
combo of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out life processes
where light helps carbon dioxide and water are converted into oxygen and glucose
contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists (including land, water and air)
living community and it's nonliving surroundings
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
individual lving thing
group of cells
tissues, organs, and organ systems
smallest functional unit of life
groups of atoms; smallest unit of chemical compounds
atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons, identified by mass #
covalent bond
strong, electrons are shared
ionic bond
electrons are transfered, strongest
hydrogen bond
when one part of the molecule is positive and the other negative and they attract, weak
difference between cohesion and adhesion
cohesion: same substances adhesion: different substances
what does pH measure
relative number of hydrogen ions
weak acids or bases that react with strong ones to prevent changes in pH
why can carbon form many different macromolecules
-can form 4 bonds at once -can bond with any atom (including itself)
atoms that make up carbohydrates
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
5 uses of lipids
1. store energy 2. waterproof covering 3. insulate heat 4. chemical messengers 5.cell membranes
2 molecules in lipids
1. glycerol 2. fatty acids
function of nucleic acid
monomer of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
nucleic acid: nucleotides proteins: amino acids carbohydrates: monosaccharides lipids: fatty acids
4 functions of proteins
1. control/regulate rate of cell processes (enzymes) 2. muscle and bone (structural components) 3. transport substances in and out of cells (carrier proteins) 4. fight disease (antibiotics)
chemical reaction
process that changes & transforms one set of chemicals into another
activation energy
energy needed to make a chemical reaction
enzymes (& why are they important to living things)
proteins that act as biological catalysts (they speed up chemical reactions)
study of interactions among organisms//organismsand their environment
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they breed and produce fertile offspring
assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
why ecologists make models
smaller, so easier to study
trophic level
each step of the food chain
portion of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next
heterotroph that breaks down organic matter
how do matter and energy flow through an ecosystem
energy: one way flow matter: recycled
water is evaporated from plants
4 large areas where carbon is found
1. rock 2. organisms 3. atmosphere 4. ocean
process that releases carbon into atmosphere
human activity
process that removes carbon from the land
nitrogen fixation
process where certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia or nitrate
why do living things need nitrogen
they are required to make amino acids (protein)
why are bacteria important in the nitrgen cycle
nitrogen fixation and denitrification
why is the phosphorous cycle vital for living things
forms DNA and RNA (life sustaining molecules)
4 places phosphorous is stored
1. rock/sediment 2. ocean 3. living things 4. minerals
how can a nutrient be a limiting factor in an ecosystem
if there isn't enough, ecosystem could take longer to grow or might not
biotic factor vs. abiotic factor
biotic: organisms abiotic: nonliving and physical
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an orgaism lives and the way in which the orgaism uses those conditions, determined by how an organism reacts to abiotic and biotic factors
relationship where 2 species live closely together
exponetial vs. logistic growth
exponential: occurs when individuals reproduces at a constant rate logistic: occurs when population growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
condition needed for exponential growth of a population
unlimited resources
6 conditions that cause logistic growth
1. resources less available 2. competition 3. parasitism 4. human interactions 5. predation 6. climate change
limiting factor
factor that causes population decrease
density independent vs. density dependent
independent: always affect population dependent: become factors only when population density reaches certain level
3 parts of cell theory
1. all living things are made of cells 2. cells only come from other cells 3. the basic structure and function of all living things is cells
why are electron microscopes able to see better than light microscopes
because electron wavelengths are shorter than light wavelengths
controls cell processes and holds heredity info
inside nucleus, makes ribosomes
produce proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
where lipid components of membrane and proteins, and other materials assemble
Glogi apparatus
packages proteins for storage or exportation out of the cell
digest lipids, carbohydrates, proteins into small molecules, break down organelles that don't work anymore
used to store water and nutrients
turn energy into compounds that are useful to the cell
helps maintain shape and involves movement
cell wall
maintains structure and helps organism have large things on it
when particles move from an area where they are more concentracted to a place where thy are less
when the concentration is the same throughtout the system
impermeable vs. selectively permeable
impermeable: nothing can get through selectivly: some can get throguh, some can't
facilitated diffusion
when the cell membrane helps the diffusion across the membrane
how can a cell store small amounts of energy when it has energy available
by adding a phosphate to ADP
2 ways cells use energy from ATP
1. synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids 2. responses to chemical signals at the cells surface
where do cells get energy to regenerate ATP
what occurs during photosynthesis
plants use energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugars
how does light effect a chlorophll molecule
the energy is transferred to electrons in the chlorophll raising their energy levels
relationship between chlorophyll and the color of plants
green reflects off of the plants because of the pigment in the chlorophyll
chlorophyll a
principle pigment of plants
2 colors chlorophyll aborbs very well
1. red 2. blue
where do light-dependent reactions take place
on the thylakoid membrane
why is it important for photosystems to be located on a membrane
they are in a row so things can be done efficently and quickly
where does photosystem 2 get the electron it needs
how does ATP synthase produce ATP
in binds the last phosphate to ADP because the hydrogen protons diffuse through the ATP synthase
where does the Calvin cycle take place
what energy does the Calvin cycle use
why is the Calvin cycle called a cycle
RuBP is recycled
3 factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
1. temperature 2. amount of light 3. shortage of water
what the observation implies
where compenents are evenly distributed (disolved)
substances that speed up chemical reactions
competative exclusion
no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at one time
carrying capasity
amount of resources in the area that support that amount of life
organize cell division
isotonic solution
where the same amount of the solute is concentrated everywhere
hypertonic vs. hypotonic
hyper: above strength hypo: below strength

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