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History Chapter 12 Flashcards


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What is the term for a strict code of chivalry and condut that acted as a guide for the Japanese samurai?
Which dynasty succeeded in reuniting China?
Sui dynasty
Which engineering marvel of the ancient word was created during the Sui dynasty?
the Grand Canal
Which places did the Sui dynasty attempt to conquer that led to the dynasty's fall?
manchuria and northern Korea
Which dynasty followed the Sui dynasty?
Tang dynasty
Where was the capital of the Tang?
How many people lived in and around Chang'an, making it the largest city in the world at that time?
two million
How many poems were in anthologies, or literary ccollections during the Tang dynasty? How many poets wrote these?
48,900; more than 2,300
Which Daoist spent a great deal of his life seeking pleasure?
Li Bai
What were Li Bai's writings like? What did they describe?
happy, light, and elegant; described the delights of life
How did Li Bai die according to Chinese legend?
he became tipsy and drowned while reaching from a boat for his reflection in the moonlit water
Which poet showed a deap concern for suffering and tragedy, possessed a serious, even solemn, nature, and devoutly follwed the teachings of Confucius?
Du Fu
Which religion reached its peak in China under the Tang dynasty?
Which is the most popular sect of Buddhism? What did it stress?
Zen; meditation as a means to enlightenment. It showed a marked similarity to Daoism
How many shrines and monasteries did the fanatically anti-Buddhist emperor destroy? How many monks and nuns did he force to live ordinary lives?
40,000 shrines, 4,600 monasteries, 260,000 monks and nuns
Which philosophy revived during the Tang dynasty?
Which dynasty was overthrown when its last emperor who was also a child was murdered?
Tang dynasty
Which dynasty came after the Tang dynasty? Who established this dynasty?
Song dynasty; Zhao Kuangyin
Who had occupied Chinese territory in southern Manchuria and invaded as far south as the Huang He?
the Mongols called the Khitan
What was the Song capital?
What did the Song dynasty have to pay to keep its capital from being attacked by the Khitan Mongols?
pay more than 200,000 ounces of silver annually
Which central Asian people moved into Manchuria and took over northern China?
the Jurchen
Which dynasty in the north did the Jurchen establish?
the Jin dynasty
What was the capital of the Jin dynasty?
What became the Song capital after Kaifeng?
Which two cities was overseas commerce centered on?
Hangzhou and Guangzhou
What was copper "cash"?
a small coin
What was a fine, translucent pottery perfected by Song artisans?
How often were civil service examinations held under the Song dynasty?
every three years
What percecnt of those who had a civil service examination succeeded?
less than 10 percent
What percent of those that passed the civil service exam passed the national exam?
also fewer than 10 percent
What steps were taken to make sure there was no cheating or corruption under the civil service?
candidates were identified by numbers, guards watched them take the exam, clerks copied the candidates' papers so the handwriting won't be recognized, three judges read each paper
Which dynasty invented gun powder? What did they initially use it for?
Tang dynasty; firecrackers
Which was another great invention of the Chinese other than gun powder? Under which dynasty was this created?
printing; Han dynasty
What was the oldest printed book?
Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist religious text
What is the first technique of printing?
Artisans copy writings by carefully fitting damp paper over the stone inscription and patting the flat surface with soot which resulted in a white-on-black image of the original
What was the second technique of printing?
seals of metal or wood on which an inscription was carved in reverse
What is the third technique of printing?
the movable type, by which separate characters made of wood, porcelain, or copper can be arranged freely to form words and sentences
How many seperate movable blocks would have been needed for printers using the movable type of printing to print in Chinese?
What was the first of the two changes that took place in peasant life during the Tang and Song dynasties?
many water-control projects were built in South China increasing the number of irrigated fields where rice could be grown; a new kind of quick-ripening rice allowed for two crops a year instead of one; a new crop, tea, came from Southeast Asia
What was the second of the two changes that took place in peasant life during the Tang and Song dynasties?
people weren't taxed individually so those living on tax-free estates of high officials didn't have to pay anymore, people were taxed by land
How did the second change affect peasants?
they couldn't move to taxfree estates when they produced too little, they had to sell their land and become tenant farmers in which they paid the landlords high rents
Which merchant and explorer from Venice visited hangzhou and recorded his amazement at its size and beauty?
Marco Polo
Which concept did Chinese cooks believe in?
"the five flavor"- bitter, salty, sour, hot, sweet
What did the Chinese use as utensils?
What did the Chinese eat?
ordinary people- rice three times a day with small portions of dried fish and pork
wealthy people- fresh fruits and vegetables and greater quantities of meat and fish
Who was the greatest nomadic leader of all times who had a fighting force of the Mongols who created the largest empire the world has ever known?
Genghis Khan
What was the largest number of people Mongolia had?
2 million
How many cavalry troops did the Mongol army consist of at its height?
130,000 cavalry troops
How far could Mongol troops travel with extra horses?
up to 90 miles in a day
What was the Mongol's headquarters?
What did the Mongols rename Beijing when they conquered it?
Who was the Mongol leader when they completed their conquest of China?
Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan
Which grandson of Ghengis Khan invaded Europe?
What did the Mongolian forces become known as to terrify the Europeans? What did this mean?
the Golden Horde; "golden" for all riches they acuired and "horde" after the Mongolian word ordo, meaning "elite cavalry force"
Which title recognized someone as the head of the whole Mongol Empire?
Great Khan
Which poem described Kublai Khan's lavish summer palace outside the city? Which poet wrote this poem?
Kubla Khan; English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Which dynasty in North China did Kublai Khan establish? What was its capital?
the Yuan dynasty; Beijing
Which dynasty did the Yuan dynasty defeat?
the Song dynasty
What was the population of China before a century of invasino and warfare? After?
100 million; 59 million
How long was the stone-surfaced highway built between Hangzhou and Beijing by the orders of Kublai? How long did it take a messenger to cover this highway?
1,100 miles; 40 days
Who was Marco Polo's Chinese counterpart who journeyed across Asia to Persia, then to Constantinople, and eventually to Italy, where he talked with the pope?
Rabban Bar Sauma of Beijing
What did Bar Sauma do in France?
he met King Philip IV and visited the University of Paris
Explain what the Chinese and the Mongols thought of each other.
The Mongols valued action; the Chinese valued literature and art. The Chinese disliked the smell and appearance of invaders and the lack of freedom Mongol women had. They had different languages too.
How many Mongol emperors ruled China after Kublai Khan died? How long did this last?
seven; 26 years
Many problems erupted after the death of Kublai Khan, under the seven emperors. What dynasty came to an end because of these problems?
the Yuan dynasty
Which countries are part of Indochina historically? Which are part of Indochina geographically?
Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; Burma, Malaysia, and Thailand as well
The ruins of which city offer a reminder of Indian influence in present-day Cambodia?
Angkor Thom
Which huge temple lies ruined in the city of Angkor Thom?
Angkor Wat
What are the four main islands of Japan on which most of the country's population lives?
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and Hokkaido
Approximately what percent of Japan can be used for farming?
About what portion of Japan can be used for farming?
How many ships did the mongols use to attempt an invasino of Japan? How many soldiers?
3,500 ships; 100,000 soldiers
What was the name for the extraordinarily powerful typhoon that stopped the Mongols from invading Japan? What do the Japanese call this?
"Divine Wind"; Kamikaze
Which religion teaches that spirits live in such objects as sand, waterfalls, and great trees? What does this word mean?
Shinto; "the way of the gods"
What are the numerous gods in the Shinto religion called? What does this word mean?
Kami; "superior"
Who is the first Japanese emperor according to tradition?
How many years back did the Japanese count to get the date of Jimmu's crowning? How was this time achieved?
1,260; it was borrowed from the hcinese as representing a major historical cycle
Who was the first real, or historic Japanese emperor?
When did the Japanese officially deny the belief that Sujin and his successors descended from the sun goddess?
1945, after the Japanese defeat in WWII
True or false?: The Shinto and Buddism religions in Japanese didn't work well together?
What did the Japanese adopt from the Chinese?
Chinese writing and Buddhism
What was the Japanese capital built after they were influenced by the Chinese? What modern city did this become?
Heian-kyo; Kyoto
What was the world's first novel? Who wrote this?
The Tale of Genji; Lady Murasaki Shikibu
Which prince, who was the perfect courtier, was written about in The Tale of Genji?
Prince Genji
Which family was the first to gain control over the emperor and to use his power to their advantage?
the Fujiwara
What is the term for a chief officer of the emperor who was expected to be dutiful to him?
Which family took control of the Japanese government after a long power struggle and introduced the idea of the shogun?
the Minamoto family
Which family took over the shogunate from the Minamoto family? How long did they control the office for?
the Ashikaga family; 200 years
What is the name for warrior-landlords that led the military units?
What is the code followed by samurais that stressed bravery, loyalty, and honor?
What is a form of ceremonial suicide that was the honorable way to avoid torture, execution, or defeat in battle?
What is seppuku also known as? What does this mean?
hara-kiri; "belly slitting"
What was the top rank of samurai who gained the loyalty of the leseer samurai?
Who did Zen Buddhism particularly interest?
Did Zen stress salvation through enlightenment or faith?
Which family of shoguns strongly supported Zen Buddhism?
What is the artistic expression of Zen that were highly stylized dance dramas, usually on religious subjects?
No plays
Which people controlled the Korean peninsula for most of its history?
the Chinese
What was the first dynasty to rule in the Korean peninsula?
the Han dynasty (Chinese)
Which kingdom emerged in Korea after the Han dynasty fell?
Who ruled Korea after the Silla?
the Mongols
Who ruled Korea after the Mongols?
the Yi dynasty
Until when did the Yi dynasty last? What stopped the dynasty?
1910; Japan annexed Korea
Which Yi emperor directed the development of a Korean alphabet?

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