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American Nations II


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Agricultural Overproduction
The Farming Expansion in the South &to the West started in 1877. The productivity of foods was booming b/c of advances in mechanical farm equipment. Farming was getting easier. However, this was causing horrible economic problems, such as declining food p
The sharecropping system implied the relationship b/t the landowner & the renter. It was a system designed to keep you down. The tenant would give the farmer everything he needed to grow his crops, including the land. However, this was done all on credit.
Farmer's Alliance
It was originally a social organization that began in Texas in 1875. It was made up of "natural friends"--country doctors, school teachers, preachers, mechanices, and of course farmers. They were opposed to the crop liens, depleted lands, and sharecroppin
Ellis Island
Ellis Island, located in NY, was the main immigration station during the peak years of immigration between 1890 and 1914. The 15,000,000 immigrants that poured into American in those years came looking for land. They were Catholics, Orthodox Christians,
Birds of Passage
In the late 19th century, 1/3 of the immigrants that came to America came simply to make money and take it back with them to their homes overseas.
Between 1890-1914, Natives weren't too keen on immigrants entering their country. They believed the immigrants weakened our country by bringing in unAmerican beliefs. Some examples of those beliefs were anarchy & communism.
Chinese Exclusion Act
In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act banned immigration from China. The Chinese passed this act in 1902 because of the massive amounts of immigrants migrating from their country to the U.S.
In Victorianism, showing your emotions in public was a sign that you lacked self control. They were concerned with emotional, as well as, physical control. That included sexual urges. Victorians were avid about abstinance and the rules to courting were
Separate Spheres
Victorians would argue that God made women inherently inferior to men; women needed the protection of men. Seperate spheres refers to gener roles. Men & Women had different responsibilities. Women were the care-givers, pure, passive, pious, and ornamental
According to Victorians, showing emotions in public is a sign of inferiority and that you lack self control. It was considered rude. You were supposed to avoid subjects that would raise emotions. Also, the woman's Christian Temperance Union, which was fo
Edward Ballamy
Wrote the best-seller "Looking Backward". It was about a man who gets hit in the head witha brick and goes into a coma. When he awakes, its the year 2000. It shows a Utopian view of the future and ignites a need for change in current times.
Horatio Alger
Writer of Victorian literature. He wrote stories about how to get ahead in business and life, aka rags-to-riches stories.
Coxley's Army
Coxey was a small businessman from Ohio. During the Panic of 1893, he raised an army to march on Washington. He claimed the government should help its citizens. He called his army a "living petition".
A ship that was sunk by a German submarine in May of 1915. 1,200 people died. 128 of them were Americans. Wilson then breaks off diplomatic association with Germany.
Zimmerman Telegram
Arthur Zimmerman was a German diplomat & a top foreign officer. He writes this telegram to Mexico in March of 1917 proposing that Mexico declares war on Germany. In return, Mexico will recieve help in getting back lost territories, such as Texas, Califor
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
In early 1915, Germany announces a new policy stating that the area around Great Britain is off limits. If anyone was to in this area, they would be torpedoed. The Lucitania was sunk in May of 1915.
Russian Revolution
In March of 1917, the existing government in Russia (monarchy) was overthrown and a democratic government was installed. This changes the nature of the war in the U.S.'s eys and they soon enter WWI in April of that same year. This had a major impact on U.
Ragtime Music
Founded in saloons and brothels, Music designed to be up-beat, fun, & make you want to dance. The Victorians didn't like this. The faster rhythms of syncopated ragtime became the rage, especially after 1911, when Irving Berlin (Russian immigrant) wrote "
Vaudville was a series of continuous performances used as a way to lighten the mood for immigrants. It because increasingly popular after 1900. Drawing on immigrant experience, it voiced the variety of city life and included skits, songs, comics, acrobat
Railroads were a symbol of what was happening in the developing economic country. The spread of telephones in the late 1800's leads to factory grown and communications growth. Therefore, there is a revolution of travel! Trains connect our country and ser
Vertical Integration
Carnegie introduces the idea of vertical integration. He brings all the processes of making steel into one corporation. He makes steel more efficiently than anyone else because it is faster, cheaper, less labor working (by eliminating the middle men). Al
Andrew Carnegie
One of the great titans in the late 19th century. Interested in technology. Intelligent and hardworking. Worked at Pacific Railroad and learns to manage a large corporation. By early 1870s he's in the steel business. Introduces the idea of vertical in
Term coined by the Redeemers after the fall of the Radical Reconstruction. (Let it be) The belief that the government should not try to interfere with business or economy. Let the economy be.
Social Darwinism
Based on the writings of English social philosopher Herbert Spencer, who took the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin and applied Darwinian principles of natural selection to society. It was the idea that we should allow the stron society to thrive an
Platt Amendment
The United States had established economic dominance over Cuba and worked hard to help them establish a firms and stable government of their own in between 1898 and 1902. The Platt Amendment in the new Cuban Constitution stated that the cuba could not do
The U.S. gets control of Manilla bay, but can't decide if the U.S. should annex the Phillipines. Some U.S. citizens opposed this because of the distance, others because of the racial issues. In the end, however, McKinnely (our president at the time)says
Settlement House Movement
Reformers wanted to bridge the socioeconomic gap between rich and poor and to bring education, culture, and hope to the slums. By 1900, there were more than a hundred settlement houses in the country. By 1910, there more than four hundred. Jan Addams's H
DeLome Letter
February 8, 1898. DeLome sends reports to Spain about whats going on in the U.S. His letter is intercepted by a Cuban spy and handed over to U.S. government. It said that President McKinnly fears war and that he is weak.
U.S.S. Maine
The USS Maine was a battleship (launched in 1889, sometimes referred to as an armored cruiser) whose sinking by an explosion, on February 15th 1898, precipitated the Spanish-American War. The blame is put on Spain. We thought only they would do such a "d
Alfred Thayer Mahan
The author of "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History", written in 1890. He was in the navy but hated ships and the tea. However, he was interested in the strategy of war. His book was tremendously influential. He believed a country had to have control
The Panama Canal
French builds toward the canal around 1901 and is ready to sell it. The obvious buyer is the U.S. 40,000,000 dollars. Canal is sold! Teddy Roosevelt is the President at this time. Teddy sends treaty over to Columbia, but it must be approved by Columbian
1902 Coal Strike
There was a massive strike in the coal mining industry. In may on 1902, 250,000 workers walk off the job. Demands: They want a 20% pay raise, reduction of working hours from 10 to 9, and want their employers to recognize their union. Results: 10% raise,
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair exposes the meat-packing industry in 1906. His novel talks of how gross the industry was. This awareness lead to the passing of the Meat Inspection Act, which requires a federal inspection to make sure conditions are sanitary.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Passed in 1906, this act provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines. It was also influenced by Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle".
Homestead Strike
Carnegie goes to Scotland when trouble arises with the union and leaves Flick in charge of one of his major mills in 1892. Flick tries to intimidate workers by making the mill like an armed-encampment. He says the union no longer exists and reduces their
Omaha Convention
In 1890, farmers decide that the only way they'll ever acheive anything is by creating their own political party. It's a 3rd political party. They called themselves the "The People's Part" or Populist party.
Omaha Platform
The People's Party demanded that the federal government create an income tax on property (aka Put the tax burdon on income and not property anymore). Also they wanted Nationalization, or in other words, for the government to take over and operate the rai
Front-Porch Campaign
The Republican Candidate for the Election of 1896, William McKinley, let voters come to him. Railroads brought them by the thousands to his hometown of Canton, Ohio. He spoke to them from his front porch. He won the election by 50% to 46%. He appealed to
Committee on Public Information
The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was intended to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American intervention in World War I. It was established under President Woodrow Wilson as an independent agency, A
Character (Samuel Smiles)
Smiles is best known today as the writer of books extolling virtues of self help, and biographies lauding the achievements of 'heroic' engineers. Most of these biographies were contained in the four volume work, Lives of the Engineers, but he also wrote m
Booker T. Washington
In an effort to inspire the "commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement" of African Americans, Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900.[13] When Washington's autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published
Keating-Owen Act
The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 also known as Wick's Bill, was a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address the perceived evils of child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children. It
Passenger Pigeon
Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. It is estimated that there were as many as five billion passenger pigeons in the United States at the time Europeans colonized North America. [1] They lived in enormous fl
Four Minute Men
In 1917, the Four Minute Men were a group of volunteers authorized by the President of the United States to give four minute speeches on topics given to them by The Committee on Public Information. The topics dealt with the American war effort in the Firs
Workingmen's Party
The Workingman's Party was a California labor organization led by Dennis Kearney in the 1870s. The party took particular aim against Chinese immigrant labor and the Central Pacific Railroad which employed them. Its famous slogan was "The Chinese must go!"

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