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World History: Patterns of Interaction, Chapter 7


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Chinese emperors were considered to be semidivine? What were the effects of this?
If emperor did well- peace & prosperity
If emperor failed- earthquakes, floods, famine
What resources did India have?
Spices, diamonds, apphires, gold, pearls, woods (ebony, teak, sandalwood)
How did the Indians profit from the Silk Road?
Acted as middlemen
Why did the Romans stop trading with the Indians?
Worried that spending gold on Indian luxeries bad for economy
What was the African interaction with India?
India imported ivory and gold, exported cotton cloth
What was India's trade interaction with China?
Chinese imported Indian cotton cloth, monkeys, parrots, and elephants, sent India silk
Where did Hinduism spread?
Nepal, Sri Lanka, Borneo
Who were the two powerful leaders that arose after Shi Huangdi's death?
Xiang Yu- aristocratic general
Liu Bang- One of Xiang Yu's generals
Liu Bang was the first emperor of the _____________ Dynasty?
What type of government did he establish?
Centralized government
How did Liu Bang win popular support?
No strict legalism, lowered taxes, softened harsh punishments
Who was the real ruler after Liu Bang died?
Empress Lü. She would name one infant and then another as emperor- they were too young to rule, so she did
What distracted emperors in the Han Dynasty?
A favorite wife was chosen by the emperor. Her son would be emperor. This led to power plays that distracted the emperor
Who was Wudi?
He realized that bribing the Xiongu just made them more powerful, and made them retreat.
How did the Chinese raise money for the bureaucracy?
Raised taxes, part of crops owed to government. One month of labor or military service for every year.
How could civilians obtain civil service jobs?
Taking examinations
What were inventions? How did they effect the Chinese?
Paper- spreads education, expands
Collar Harness
What was considered the most important and honored occupation?
What is a monopoly?
When a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods.
What is assimilation?
The process of making people part of the culture. The Chinese government encouraged assimilation to unify the empire and make conquered peoples part of Chinese culture. Chinese farmers were sent to newly colonized areas and encouraged to intermarry.
What was the woman's role in Chinese society?
Supposed to devote self to family and be faithful, pure and modest. Some upper-class women broke out of this mold and got power, education, and culture.
How dod the rich take advantage of the poor?
Custom dictated that the family's land must be divided among the male heirs, leading to smaller and smaller plots, which were hard to raise enough food on. They had to borrow money from large landowners at very high rates. The large landowners also did not have to pay taxes, so the poor were pressed hard for $
Who took the imperial title for himself after political instability?
Wang Mang, He tried to bring control to the country
Minted new money- disrupted flow of
Set up public granaries
Planned to redistribute land- angered
powerful landowners

A great flood came and Wang Mang was assassinated
What happened to the Later Han Dynasty?
It toppled for the same reasons the Former Han did, disintegrating into three kingdoms.
What are the themes of chapter 7?
Power and Authority
Cultural Interaction
Religious and Ethical Systems
"Headed by the eldest male"
Patriarchal- Most Indian families
Who was the first Indian leader? What did he do?
Chandragupta Maurya. He seized a lot of land. He raised taxes to support the troops.
What type of government did Chandragupta create? What was his advisor's name?
A bureaucacy. Kautilya.
What change did Asoka have? What were the effects of this?
After killing thousands, he converted to Buddhism. Religous toleration and acceptance of all cultures were emphasized. He built roads and improved their conditions for his subjects. However, he failed to hold his empire together.
What were the pillars called the Asoka wrote is policies on? What were the policies?
To treat subjects fairly and humanely
Religious toleration
What dynasty arose after Asoka's death? Why did they profit?
Andhra Dynasty. Central position in India.
What people lived in the southern tip of India
the Tamil people
What was India's second empire?
The Gupta Empire
Who was the first Gupta emperor?
Chandra Gupta I
What was Samudra Gupta like?
He was a lover of poetry and music but also had a warlike side.
What was daily life like for Indians?
Poeple lived in small villages with a stable life. Craftspeople and merchants clustered in specific districts.
Who were those that accepted the new doctrines in Buddhism? What were they?
Mahayana. Offered salvation to all, popular worship
Who held to Buddha's original teachings?
the Theravada
What was the change in Hinduism?
A trend toward monotheism
Who were the three most important Hindu gods?
Brahma- creator
Vishnu- preserver
Shiva- destroyer
Who was the great write in India?
What technologies were in India during the Gupta empire?
astronomy, timekeeping, calendar, round earth, mathematics- value of pi and length of solar year, medical guides

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