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Microbiology - Bugs/2


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What are general characteristics of mycobacterium ?
-Gram+ rods
-only of acid-fast positive genus, covered in mycolic acid
-found in soil
-extremely slow growing
-aerobic, catalase +
-waxy cell wall prevents Ab response to mycobacterial infection, controlled by imm. response of phagocytes
What is thrush ?
oral yeast
picked up by babies as they pass through vagina/birth canal or in immunosuppressed adults
What are several ways to Rx acne ?
1. non-comedomgenic skin preps that won't clog the pores
2. salicylic acid preps or facial scrubs, alpha hydroxy lotions
3. Benzyol peroxide/oxy 10
4. tetracycline Abs to kill bacteria in skin oil
5. Retin A that keeps the ducts open with faster growing epithelium
6. Acutane-Rx vitamin A derivative
What is the sign of a + TB test ?
vasodilation of skin at injection site
(+) if skin turn red and swells
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
causes athlete's foot, tinea pedis thru direct contact
-chronic infections leave toenails yellow, thick
-Culture with Sabouraud's glucose/dextrose agar
Discuss vulvovaginitis.
few candida live in vagina with pH of 4
with broad spectrum Abx, the flora is gone and pH rises to 7
Rx = swim in chlorinated pool or hot tub to kill
* DM inc. sugar content -> yeast growth
s/s - intense vaginal and vulval itching, sl. vaginal discharge
Rx = nystatin vaginal supp. or creams
What is M. tuberculosis ?
Pathogen !
-> TB in humans [M bovis causes TB in cows and humans]
* is a lung infection spread by droplet transmission
-if it goes outside the lungs, it becomes miliary TB
Dx is made by sputum specimen that is gram stained, acid fast stained, and cultured
What is C diptheriae ?
causes diphtheria
spread by droplet precaution carrie to upper resp. tract forming part of transient normal flora
Infection=1-sore throat/URI, then with bacteria spread, throat is coated and leads to suffocation
Dx with throat swab that shows club stained + rods with dark staining granule at end - Chinese letter like
Prevention: DTP vaccine
What is C xerosis ?
normal skin flora diphtheroids in throat
gram+ rods in side-by-side pallisades
cryptococcus neoformans
yeast that causes fatal meningitis in AIDS - grows in bird droppings
What is the M & M of TB ?
Morbidity = 23,000 cases/yr
Mortality with Rx = 10%
What detects exposure to M tuberculosis?
TB skin test
coccidiodes immitis
causes coccidiodomycosis / valley fever
spores grow in lungs causing flu-like illness with fever, cough, joint aches, pains
can disseminate
What is propionibacterium/C acne?
anaerobic gram+ diphtheroids in skin
-> acne!
What are the general characteristics of corynbacterium?
gram + rod
acid-fast negative
negative spore producer
rods are club shaped and contain a dark staining food storage granule
aerobic bacterium, catalase +
produces exotoxins
What are general characteristics of medical mycology?
- molds and yeast are members of the fungi kingdom-eukaryotes with cell wall of chitin
- usual Abx are ineffective - use topical nystatin or systemic amphotericin B-inhibits sterols in cell membrane
What does Candida Albicans / yeast cause ?
skin infections in skin folds or diaper rash
How do you Rx leprosy ?
with antimetabolite sulfas
What is mycobacterium leprae ?
-causes leprosy or Hansen's disease
-transmission unknown
-is found in soil of warm moist climates, grows in armadillos
Pneumocystis carinii
Yeast like protozoal-like
protozoa -> fungi
-found in 85% of AIDS pts' lung -> fatal pneumonia
histoplasma capsulatum
causes histoplasmosis
fungus grows in lungs giving pheumonia like symptoms
grows in bird droppings/guano, east of MS river
When is leprosy disfiguring?
when the bacterium infiltrates skin and nerves on coller body tissue such as nose, fingers -> lumpy nodules form, claw hand, lion face
microsporum canis
-fungus that causes ring worm, tinea capitis or tinead corporis
-has a raised red ring on non-hairy skin
-has red, scaly blister like vesicles that glow under Wood's lamp
-can come from dogs, cats, horse -> humans
Skin infections 2* to yeast are...
Allergic-skin rubs together due to fabric softener sheets, soap, baby lotions/wipes, food allergies to baby and/or from mother
Ammonia-papulo-vesicular rash in infants >7 mos old 2* urea in urine being converted to ammonia -> burning the skin
Yeast-don't use talcum powder, cornstarch, or vaseline
Rx = mycolog = cortisone, gramcidin, nystatin

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