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History 122 Ch 27


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ch 27 When did the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) gain visibility?
In 1946 after revalations of a Soviet spy ring operating in Canada accentuated US fears Soviet subversion.
ch 27 How did Eisenhower and Nixon launch an effective campaign in the 1952 presidential election?
The launched and effective attack on the Democratic leadership by stressing the Truman administration's involvement in bribery and influence-peddling scandals and by capitalizing on Truman's failure to end the war in Korea.
ch 27 Franklin Roosevelt worked well with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, and hoped to continue good relations in peace time. How did he hope to accomplish this?
He hoped that the United Nations would provide a forum for resolving postwar conflicts.
ch 27 Which parts of Truman's Fair Deal won approval?
The minimum wage was raised; the Social Security program was extended to cover 10 million new workder; Social Security benefits were increased by 70%; and the National Housing Act of 1949 called for the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing (only 1/2 of that was actually built).
ch 27 What were some duties of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)?
Intelligence gathering, & active covert involvement in the internal affairs of foreign countries to the extent of overthrowing several governments.
ch 27 Who represented an obstacle to the US dominance in world affairs?
The Soviet Union
ch 27 In what ways did the Korean War have a lasting impact on the conduct of American foreign policy?
The war expanded American involvement in Asia, transforming containment into a truly global policy. During and after the war the US stationed large numbers of troops in South Korea and increased military aid to French forces fighting Communist insurgents in Indochina. American foreign policy had become more global, more militarized, and more expensive.
ch 27 What year was the collapse of the USSR?
ch 27 What resulted from the Potsdam Conference?
The allies agreed to disarm Germany, dismantle its military production facilities, and permit the occupying powers (the US, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union) to extract reparations from the zones they controlled.
ch 27 The most powerful country in the world, the US had become a preeminent force in the international arena. Only the ________ ________ represented an obstacle to American dominance in global affairs.
Soviet Union
ch 27 Liberal Consensus
Refers to widespread agreement in the decades of the 1950s & 1960s the govt power could be used to stimulate the economy to bring about extensive affluence; protect the rights of disadvantaged minorities; and promote social welfare in general. The liberal consensus supported an optimistic belief in a prosperous, harmonius future that also assumed US world activism to contain communism.
ch 27 Rapidly rising costs of living prompted workers to demand higher wages. Union leaders expressed frustration because corporate profts doubled while real wages declined as a resul of inflatoin and the loss of oevertime pay. How did workers make up for their war-induced sacrifices?
They mounted crippling strikes in the automobile, steel, and coal industries. General strikes effectively closed down business in more thaan half a dozen cities in 1946.
ch 27 Truman assumed the presidency after Roosevelt's death. Why did he berate the Soviet foreign minister, V.M. Molotov?
He berated him over the Soviet's failure to honor their Yalta agreement to support free elections in Poland.
ch 27 What contributed to the rise in Senator Joseph McCarthy's popularity?
In a February 1950 speech, McCarthy claimed to have a list of 205 names of men that were known to the Secy of State as being members of the Communist Party, who were still working and shaping the policy of the State Dept. McCarthy leveled accusations of Communist subversion in the govt to embarass President Truman and the Democratic Party.
ch 27 Who succeeded Stalin as leader of the Soviet Union?
Nikita S. Khrushchev
ch 27 What did Henry A. Wallace advocate when he ran as a presidential candidate of the new Progressive Party in 1948?
Increased government intervention in the economy, more power for labor unions, and cooperation with the Soviet Union.
ch 27 Shortly after becoming president in 1948, Truman proposed to Congress a 21 point plan for expanded federal programs based on individual rights. What did it include?
the right to a useful and remunerative job, controls over monopolies, good houseing, adequate medical care, protection from the economic fears of old age, and a good education.
ch 27 Southern Democrats, unwilling to tolerate federal interference in race relations, bolted the convention and created the States' Rights Party, popularly known as
the "Dixiecrats"
ch 27 What is the duty of the National Security Council (NCS)?
To set defense and military priorities.
ch 27 What was the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), formed by by Martin Dies?
The committee investigated alleged Fascist and Communist influence in labor unions and New Deal agencies.
ch 27 What did the Truman adminstration do to address civil rights?
In 1946 Truman appointed a National Civil Rights Commission; He ordered the Justice Dept to prepare a brief in the Supreme Court case of Shelley v Kraemer which ruled that states that enforced restrictive covenants maintaining residential segregation by barring home buyers of a certain race or religion violated the 14th Amendment; Truman also signed an executive order desegregating the armed forces.
ch 27 Containment
American Cold War policy designed to prevent Soviet expansionism, articulated most forcefully in 1946 by American diplomatic advisor George Kennan. For over 40 years American defense policy was guided by Kennan's argument that the Soviets would stop only when met with "unanswerable force".
ch 27 How did Gamal Abdel Nassar retaliate against the withdrawal of Western financial aid?
By seizing and nationalizing the Suez Canal, over which Britain had retained adminstrative authority and through which three-quarters of Western Europe's oil was transported. After months of fruitless negotiation, Britain and France in alliance with Isreal, attacked Egypt and retook the canal.
ch 27 Third World
This term came into usage in the post-World War II Era to describe developing or ex-colonial nations that were not aligned with either the First World, meaning the Western capitalist countries, or the Second World War, referring to the socialist states of Eastern Europe. It is currently used in reference to developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East.
ch 27 Describe "McCarthyism" which is named after Senator Joseph R. McCarthy.
A fear of communism in America that fueled a widespread campaign of domestic repression.
ch 27 While the arms race boosted the military-industrial sectors of the US and the Soviets, what systems became debilitated?
it debilitated their social welfare programs by funneling immense resources into soon-to-be-obsolete weapons systems.
ch 27 Two aircraft companies did so much of their business with the government that they depended on Defense Department orders. What aircraft companies were they?
Boeing and Lockheed
ch 27 How was the foundation laid for what would become the political division into East and West Germany?
Plans for future reunification of Germany stalled as the U.S. and the Soviet Union each worried that a unified Germany would fall into the other's sphere.
ch 27 What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Addressing concerns over declining British influence in the Middle East, the policy stated that American forces would assist any nation in the region "requiring such aid, against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism." The Doctrine revealed US intentions to influence events in the Middle East.
ch 27 Name 2 antinuclear groups
SANE (the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) & Physicians for Social Responsibility. These groups called for an international test ban.
ch 27 What was the Taft-Hartley Act passed by Congress in 1947?
It was a rollback of several provisions of the 1935 National Labor Relations Act. Sectoin 14b of the Taft-Hartley outlawed the closed shop and allowed states to pass "right-to-work" laws that further limited unions' operations. The act restricted unions' political power by prohibiting use of their dues for political activity and allowed the president to declare and 80-day cooling-off period in strikes that had a national impact.
ch 27 To complement the NATO alliance in Europe, Secy of State Dulles orchestrated the creation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. What did it do?
It linked America and its major European allies with Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, New Zealand, and the Philippines. This extensive system of defense tied the US to more than 40 other countries.
ch 27 What was the "Great Fear"?
It was built on the long-standing distrust of radicals and foreigners that had exploded in the Red Scare after WWI.
ch 27 Domino Theory
An American Cold War concept associated with the containment policy that posited that Communist incursions into nations must be stopped before Communism spread into neighboring countries and enveloped entire regions. The term was 1st used by Eisenhower, who warned of the "falling domino" principle.
ch 27 How did the Middle East present one of the most complicated foreign-policy changes?
On May 14, 1948, Zionist leaders proclaimed the state of Isreal. Truman quickly recognized the new state, alienating the Arabs but winning crucial support from Jewish voters. When Gamal Abdel Nasser came to power in Egypt in 1954, he pledged to lead not just his country but the entire Middle East out of its dependent, colonial relationship through a form of pan-Arab socialism and declared Egypt's neutrality in the Cold War. Unwilling to accept this stance of nonalignment, Secy of State John Foster Dulles abruptly withdrew his offer of US financial aid to Egypt in 1957.
ch 27 What were results of the Suez canal crisis?
It increased Soviet influence in the Third World, intensified anti-Western sentiment in Arab countries, and produced dissension among leading members of the NATO alliance.
ch 27 Which public works program surpassed anything undertaken during the New Deal?
The Interstate Highway Act of 1956, which authorized $26 billion over a 10 year period for the construction of a nationally integrated highway system.
ch 27 The Senate approved America's participation in the _______ __________ in December 1945
United Nations. Coming 8 months after Roosevelt's death, the vote was in part a memorial to his hopes for peace.
ch 27 Describe "modern Republicism"
It is an updated party philosophy that emphasized a slowdown, rather than dismantling, of federal responsibilities. Modern Republicans were more tolerant of govt intervention in social and economic affairs, though they did seek to limit the scope of federal action.
ch 27 Blacklist
Procedure used by employers throughout the 19th century to label and identify workers affiliated with unions. In the 1950s, blacklists were utilized to exclude alleged Communists from jobs in government service, the motion picture business, and many industries and unions.
ch 27 How did Eisenhower's administration expand its commitment to the hydrogen bomb?
They approved extensive atmospheric testing in the South Pacific and in western states such as Nevada, Colorado and Utah; they made a commitment to develop the long-range bombing capabilities of the Strategic Air Command; and installed the Distant Early Warning line of radar stations in Alaska and Canada in 1958.
ch 27 How did Eisenhower catch up with Cold War competition?
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was founded in 1958; the president also persuaded Congress to appropriate additional money for college scholarships and for research and development at universities and in industry.
ch 27 In April 1950 the (NSC) National Security Council delivered its report, known as "NSC-68" to the president. What did the report contain?
It was filled with alarmist rhetoric and exaggerated assessments of Soviet capabilities. The document made several several specific recommendations, including the development of a hydrogen bomb, an advanced weapon a thousand times more destructive than the atomoc bombs that had destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The report supported increases in US conventional forces and the establishment of a strong system of alliances. Most important it called for increased taxes to finance a bold and massive program of rebuilding the West's defensive potential to surpass that of the Soviet world.
ch 27 What was one of Dwight Eisenhower's first acts as President?
He used his negotiating skills to bring an end to the Korean War.
ch 27 Truman added support for civil rights to his 21 points plan, and in his 1949 State of the Union address, he christened his program ____ ______ _______
The Fair Deal
ch 27 Why did President Truman relieve General MacArthur of his command in Korea and Japan?
Truman accused MacArthur of insubordination. Truman and his advisors wanted to work for a negotiated peace in China and did not want to tie down large numbers of US troops in Asia. MacArthur disagreed believing that the nation's future lay in Asia, not Europe. Disregarding Truman's instructions, MacArthur traveled to Taiwan and urged the Nationalists to join in an attack on mainland China.
ch 27 Describe the Brown v Board of Education Supreme Court case.
Thurgood Marshall argued the case that segregated schools were inherently unconstitutional because they stigmatized the race, denying black children the "equal protection of the laws" guaranteed by the 14th amendment.
ch 27 Although Eisenhower strongly opposed communism, he hoped to keep the cost of containment at a manageable level. How did he and Secy of State John Foster decide to economize?
Under his "new look" defense policy, Eisenhower and Secy of State John Foster Dulles decided to economize by developing a massive nuclear arsenal as an alternative to more expensive conventional forces.
ch 27 What contributed to the cycle of distrust and animosity that would shape US - Soviet relations until the collapse of the USSR in 1991?
Each side tried to protect its own national security and way of life, its actions aroused fear in the other. It was a complex power struggle covering a range of economic, strategic, and idological issues.
ch 27 The Soviet Union launched the first satellite in 1957, what was it called?
ch 27 Describe Eisenhower's background.
Despite his lack of political experience, his military reputation (he had been Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe) engendered confidence in his leadership. He shared many of Truman's & the Democrats' assumptions about the Cold War; his administration's policies were distinctive. His "new look" in foreign policy continued the nation's commitment to containment but sought less expensive ways of implementing the nations' predominance in the Cold War struggle against international communism.
ch 27 What was the most important force for change in postwar America?
The civil rights movement.
ch 27 Why was Rosa Parks arrested in 1955?
She refused to give up her seat to a white man on a city bus. She was charged with violating a local segregation ordinance.
ch 27 What was the Baruch Plan that was submitted to the United Nations in 1946?
The US proposed a system of international control of atomic weapons that relied on mandatory inspection and supervision but preserved American nuclear monopoly.
ch 27 Who was Frances Gary Powers?
An American U-2 spy plane pilot who was shot down, captured, and imprisoned in the Soviet Union
ch 27 After dismantling Japan's military forces and weaponry, American occupation forces under the leadership of ___________ ____________ _______________ drafted a democratic Constitution and oversaw the rebuilding of the economy, paving the way for restoration of Japanese sovereignty in 1951.
General Douglas MacArthur
ch 27 Interest groups opposed key items in the Fair Deal. What were some of the items?
The American Medical Association (AMA) quashed a labor-backed movement for national health insurance; trade associations, the National Association of Manufacturers, and other business groups opposed what they called "creeping socialism".
ch 27 Did the Baruch Plan succeed or fail? Why?
It failed. The Soviets rejected the plan and continued to work on their own bomb. The failure of the Baruch Plan signaled the hardening of tensions and the beginning of a frenzied nuclear arms race between the two superpowers.
ch 27 Who were the Hollywood Ten?
A group of writers and directors who went to jail for contempt of Congress when they cited the 1st Amendment while refusing to testify about their past associations.
ch 27 Hailed as a battle between ________ & ________, the Cold War was in reality a more complex power struggle covering a range of economic, strategic, and ideological issues.
communism & capitalism
ch 27 Covert Interventions
Secret undertakings by a country in pursuit of foreign-policy goals, as evidenced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started in the 1950s, when operating in the interests of the U.S. Knowledge of these acts, like U.S. participation in the overthrow of the government of Guatemala in 1954 and support for the Contras in Nicaragua in the 1980s, was kept from the American people and most members of Congress.
ch 27 What was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)?
Formed by Martin Luther King, Reverend Ralph Abernathy, and other southern black clergy, they lent their moral and organizational strength, as well as the voices of their most inspirational preachers, to the civil rights movement. Along with the NAACP they laid the organizational ground work for for the dynamic civil rights movement.
ch 27 What advisory body was established by the National Security Act of 1947?
the National Security Council (NSC)
ch 27 Describe the espionage trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
They were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union in a highly controversial trial. The Rosenbergs were executed in 1953.
ch 27 The Soviets matched the US weapon for weapon in an escalating arms race. By 1958 both nations had __________ ____________ _______________
intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)
ch 27 What was the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare created in 1953?
It consolidated government control of social welfare programs and confirmed federal commitments in that area.
ch 27 The People's Republic of China was formally established under _____ _______ on October 1, 1949.
Mao Zedong
ch 27 How did Truman respond in the face of a devastating railroad strike?
He used his executive authority to place the nation's railroad system under federal control and asked Congress for the power to draft striking workers into the army - a move that infuriated labor leaders but pressured strikers to go back to work.

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