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Government Ch. 9 + 18


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origin of bureaucracies
developed in china to rationalize work of gov't, designed to ensure someone was responsible for a specific issue area through specialization
hierarchical chain of command, division of labor and specialization, clear lines of authority, impersonal rules and merit based decision making
3 original bureaucratic departments
state, war, treasury
department of agriculture
created by Lincoln in 1862 due to poor harvests and need to feed troops during Civil War
Justice department
created after Civil War due to need to pay pensions to veterans and those injured from the war
reasons for expansion of gov't
wars, increased citizen demand for services, use of gov't jobs to reward political support
spoils of politics
name for public jobs between 1830-1880s
Civil Service Reform Act (Pendleton Act)
passed in 1883 to reduce patronage, build up merit-based system of public jobs
Hatch Act
prohibits federal employees from donating money to a president's campaign
Interstate Commerce Commission
first independed regulatory commission, created to counter price fixing, monopolies, unfair business practices that resulted from the industrial revolution
Department of Commerce and Labor
created in 1900 by Roosevelt to oversee employer-employee relations due to intolderable conditions, refusal of employers to allow unions
16th amendment
passed in 1913 - expanded gov't by allowing gov't to tax personal income which supported new services, agencies, programs
Court Packing Plan
FDR's attempt to change majority vote on supreme court so they would pass his New Deal programs
four types of agencies
cabinet departments, government corporations, independent agencies, regulatory commissions
cabinet departments
14 of them, 60% federal workforce, responsbile for conductiong broad areas of gov't operation, each headed by a secretary, assisted by deputies and undersecretaries, departments subdivided into functional units
government corporations
began in 1930s - businesses created to perform functions that could be performed by private businesses but arent b/c not profitable, ex. Amtrak, TN Valley Authority
Independent Executive Agencies
have narrower mandates than cabinet departments, usu. perform service function, ex. CIA, NASA, EPA
Independent Regulatory Commussions
regulate specific econ activity/interest, ex. National Labor Relations Booard/ Securities Exchange Commission, once appointed, cant be removed w/o cause, staggered terms of office
Federal Employee Political Activities Act
created 1993 (Clinton) - allows employees of fed govt to run for office in nonpartisan elections (ex school boards), contribute money if they want, participate in campaigns in nonwork hours
Administrative Discretion
ability to decide what passages mean due to 'wiggle room' in regulations caused by comprimises during policy making, allow bureaucracy power over shaping policy
Rule Making
bureaucratic power to write refulations that have force of law, printed in Federal Register, ake effect 30 days after printing
Administrative Adjudictaion
agency foces compliance w/ rule sthrough a trial
Executive Control over Bureaucracy
appoint/remove agency heads, reorganize bur., change budget, ignore bur. initiatives, issue executive orders
Congressional Control over Bureaucracy
pass legislation to alter agency's function, abolish existing programs, investigate bur. activites, influence presidential appointments, write legislation to limit bur. discretion, limit use of funds to agency
Judicial Control over Bureaucracy
rule whether bur acted w/in the law, rule on constitutionality, force respect for righs of individuals through hearings
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 - Congress began to regulate RRs, required RR rates be "just and reasonable," prohibited rate discrimination
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890 - prohibits restraints of trade and monopolies
Progressive Movement
1901-1917 - middle class reform movement designed to change political, econ, social system of US, wanted to control corporate power, make it more responsive to society and democratically elected govt
New Deal
proposed by Roosevelt - favored strong govt action to relieve econ distress of depression, established nat'l govt as major regulator of private businesses, provider of social security, responsible for maintaining stable econ
Murray Bill
proposed by Senator Murray (D-Mont) - guaranteed right to employment for anyone willing/able to work through govt investment during times when private investment = inadequate, opposed by conservatives
Employment Act
1946 - watered down version of Murray Bill - said fed govt responsible to use all pratcicable means to promote max. employment, created Council of Economic Advisors, Joint Economic Committee
Council of Economic Advisors
created thru employment act - set up advisors to pres on econ issues
Wagner Act
1935 - gave trade unions the right to collectively bargain, strongly opposed by conservatives and business
Taft Hartley Act
1946 - created when repubs became majority in congress - prohibited number of union activities, prohibited closed-shop arrangement
closed shop arrangement
said an employer could only hire union workers
Social Regulation Era
1960s-70s - caused by time of social activism, modern technology revealed unsafe products (DDT, cigarettes, leaded gas), congressmen saw advocating safety as way to enhance reputations, pres in office (LBJ/Nixon) supported movement
1970's-80s movement that attacked economic regulations such as RRs, commercial airlines, financial institutions
John Maynard Keynes
economist - said gov't spending could be used to offset decline in private spending and help maintain levels of spending, production, employment, thus avoiding huge swing of econ cycles (deficit spending)
Monetary Policy
involves regulation of country's money supply and interest rates to stable econ, primary responsiblity rests w/ Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve System
created 1913, consists of Federal Reserve Board, Federal Open Market Committee, 12 Fed Reserve Banks
Federal Reserve Board
7 members appointed by pres, 14 yr terms, one member designated as chair (4 yr term)
Fiscal Policy
involves taxation, govt spending, formulated by pres and congress thru budget
John Kennedy
first pres to actively use fiscal policy, deliberately ran a deficit to fuel econ growth
Budget and Accounting Act
1921 - gave pres authority to prepare annual budget and submit it to congress
Office of Management and Budget
created to assist pres in preparing budget, provides bur w/ instructions, guidleines on pres priorities
fiscal year
october1 to september 30
Gramm - Rudman - Hollings Act
1985 - created a procedure for automatic deficit reduction, if congress didnt decide on cuts to balance budget, act would automatically cut programs and spending, didnt work
Environmental Protection Agency
largest regulatory body in the country

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