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Final Study Guide - History


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Causes of Cold War and Major events
• Stalin and communists fearful of America trying to extend capitalism throughout the world ***US fearful of stalin having a worldwide spread of communism. us wants eastern europe to be able to self-determine type of government(nationalism, communism.....) ***stalin was fearful of anti-communism in the west, so he wanted all the eastern countries,.......... Soviets had pushed the Nazi's back into germany, and they ended up staying in the countries that they pushed the Nazi's back through. -stalin refused to remove the soldiers(basically he conquers them) 1947-truman doctrine(us will aid countries threatened by communist expansionism.) 1947-MArshall Plan{13 billion dollars to aid war-torn Europe because countries in trouble were more susceptible to communist takeover} STALIN -called eastern countries he conquered satellite states... forbade satellite states from accepting and using the Marshall plan. Molotor PLan - for soviets to give financial aid to "satellite states"(soviets didnt actually have the money to give=SCAM!) TRUMAN'S Policy of Containment- wants no further expansion of communism further into the west........ AFTER WWII, GErmany was divided into 4 zones: FRENCH democratic) 1961- ordered for wall to be built between east Germany and West GErmany. *12ft tall, barbed wire, flood lights, watch towers, machine guns, minefields, vicious dogs CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS- 1959- Fidel castro, Raul castro and Che Buvara led groups of revolutionaries to overthrow cuban gov. FIDEL castro develops a totalitarian state.... 1961-cuban exiles wanted to overthrow castro__ US suppports them with weapons...FAILED because at the BAy of Pigs, people were waiting to kill the exiles.. soviets made a commitment of money and arms to cuba................. CAstro began communism in Cuba. soviet union set up nuclear heads... 1962- president kenedy had 2 choices: invade cuba or naval blockade....... chose naval blockade. the soviet ships went back along with the nuclear weapons..set up phone line between us and soviet union..... to prevent any future nuclear war.
Describe and state the purpose of Nazi concentration camps
extermination centers for Jews........ Description: typhus infested huts, starvation, labor-starved/worked to death, gas chambers, electric fences, soup with worms, medical experiments with no anesthesia TURNED FROM CONCENTRATION CAMPS TO DEATH CAMPS..... purpose: to exterminate everyone except for the Aryan race (blond hair blue eyes)
Hitler's Air-WAr Campaign
luftwaffe-German Air-Force.... air war-BLITZ German planes bombed the british air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers and war industries...... Soon, began mass bombing of major cities
Impact of the Steam Engine
1. cotton industry became more productive 2. enabled the steam engine to drive machinery 3. cities did not need to be located near rivers and streams 4. powered railroads: created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants 5. transportation increased(cheaper food prices and cheaper transportation) 6. James watt improved the steam engine to drive machinery
What was the soviet strategy used to defeat Hitler's Nazi forces
*scorched Earth Joseph Stalin ordered that both civilians and soldiers initiate this policy. This was used to deprive the Nazi forces of the basic supplies necessary to fight DESTROYED FOOD< BUILDINGS< AND WEAPONS this plan delayed the Nazi advancement into Russia, they stretched out Nazi forces over 1000's of miles and then surrounded them, cutting off their supply - forced them to surrender
Pearl Harbor
On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. Japanese leaders had hoped that their lightning strike at American bases would destroy the U.S. fleet in the Pacific. They thought the Roosevelt administration would accept Japanese domination of the Pacific. Instead the attack on the Pearl Harbor unified American opinion about becoming involved in the war. The U.S. now joined arms with European nations and Nationalist China in a combined effort to defeat Japan.
Schlieffen Plan
On July 29, the czar ordered a full mobilization of Russian army. Germany saw this as an act of war and warned the Russians to halt its mobilization. When Russia ignored this, the Germans had a military plan ready. This plan was known as the Schlieffen Plan which had been drawn up under the guidance of General Alfred von Schlieffen. According to the plan, Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russia while most of the Russian army would invade France. After France was defeated, the German forces would move to the east against Russia. In order to move up to Russia, the German forces had to issue an ultimatum to Belgium demanding the right of German troops to pass through Belgian territory. Great Britain declared war on Germany, officially for violating Belgian neutrality. By August 4, all the great powers of Europe were at war.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman was alarmed by the British withdrawal and the possibility of the soviet expansion into eastern Mediterranean. ***stated that the US would provide money to countries threatened by communist expansionism, so that they would not turn to communism for a way out. *if the soread of communism was not stopped, the US would have ti face the spread of communism throughout the free world
Germany's USe of the Zeppelin
GERMAN BLIMP(hot air balloon) helium filled balloons used to reconnaissance (spy) sometimes used to drop bombs..... could see where troop formations were.... traveled slow, limited use
Artistic Realism and the Camera
*rejected romanticism- wanted to write about ordinary characters fro actual life, not romantic heroes in exotic places -avoided emotional language CAMERA-causes artists to reject realism (why take the time to paint something when instead you can just take a picture of it)
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
GERMANY- WWI wanted to attack and put a blockade around great britain torpedoed ships(military and merchant) LUSITANIA-british ship sunk by german forces(had over 100 americans onboard who died) Unrestricted because they were not only sinking navy ships, but also merchant ships
Role of Women in the Nazi PArty
bearers of children who would bring triumph to the Aryan race.... women meant to be mothers and wives... *work:social workers or nurses
Impact of NApoleon's Civil Code
1. preserved the equality of all citizens before the law->except for women 2. opened government careers to more people 3. Liberty replaced by a despotism that was arbitrary. 4. created new aristocracy based on merit 5. WOMEN CONSIDERED LESS THAN MEN!
Strategy the Russians used to defeat Napoleon's Grand Army
Refused to give battle, retreated for 100's of miles, as retreated, burned their own villages and countrysides to keep Napoleon's army from finding supplies ...-When the Grand army reached Moscow, they found the city ablaze and lacking food and supplies. .....-Napoleon abandoned Moscow and started "the great retreat"
Purpose of the Einstatzgruppen
The creator of the Einsatzgruppen was Reinhard Heydrich who was the head of the Security Service. The Einsatzgruppen were created to carry out the Nazi plans. In 1941, the Einsatzgruppen were given the job of acting as mobile killing units. Their job was to round up Jews in their villages, execute them, and bury them in mass graves. The graves were often giant pits dug up by the victims themselves before they were shot.
Impact of Compulsory Education
*created a demand for teachers(women) *increase in literacy * newspapers became extremely popular
Domino THeory
-if communists succeeded in south Vietnam, the argument went, the other countries in Asia would also fall(like dominoes) to communism....... *foreign policy promoted by the US * used to justify the American intervention
Soviet Women during WWII
Women played a major role in the war effort. Women and girls worked in industries, mines and railroads. The number of women working in industries increased to about 60 %. Soviet women were also expected to dig antitank ditches and work as air raid wardens. The Soviet Union was the only country in WWII to use women in battles as snipers and aircrews of bomber squadrons.
Trench Warfare
Trench warfare is the idea of fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire, as in WWI. The Western Front had become bogged down in trench warfare that kept the Germans and French in virtually the same spot for 4 years. -----------------were a line of trenches that stretched from the English channel to Switlerland.... TRENCHES:(ditches dug for shelter)
IMpact of the Munich Conference
Hitler had decieved Britain france and italy "peace for our time" that he would make no more demand s for land...... Hitler was convinced that the western democracies were weak and would not fight back,,,,,,,, hitler not satisfied at conference. Hitler took control of Bohemia and Moravia(chezkoslovakia) (became puppet states) Britain offered to protect poland in the event of war--------->france and britain knew that only the soviets were powerful enough to help contain nazi agression
Explain the allied response to the concentration camps
propaganda from WWI was exaggerated about the harshness of the Germans, so when the true propaganda game from WWII, people thought that it was exaggerated just like last time......... allied powers did not know how bad the conditions were until they saw it with their own eyes,
Impact of Charles Darwin's theories
raised a storm of controversy and objected that the theory made human beings odrinary products of nature rather than unique creations *people condemned Darwin for denying God's role in creation
Causes of WWII
1. Treaty of Versailles - Germany not happy with War guilt cause 2. axis powers: Germany, Italy, Japan. Hitler creates treaty with Stalin(non-aggression pact) 1931-japan invades Manturia 1933-Hitler comes to power, 1939-Hitler invades Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, (this causes Britain and France to declare war on Germany) December 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor, US pulled into the war when the Japanese bomb the naval fleet->Germany declares was on US because they are allies with japan

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