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History Final Parts


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Manifest Destiny
the 19th-century belief that the United States woiuld inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory
a scandal arising from the Nixon administration's attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex
14th Amendment
contains the "due process", "equal protection" and "citizenship" clauses.
Stephen Douglass
the well-known opponent of Abraham Lincoln in both a senatorial and a presidential election. He never became president "Little Giant"
Bonus Army
a group of World War 1 veterans and their families who marched on Washinton, D.C., in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of a bonus they had been promised for military service
The 39th President of the United States (1977-1981), who is credited with establishing energy-conservation measures, concluding the Panama Canal treaties (1978), and negotiating the Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel (1979). He won the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.
Agent Orange
a toxic leaf-killing chemical sprayed by U.S. planes in Vietnam to expose Vietcong hideouts
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
The War Guilt Clause
a provison in the Treat of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War 1
Robert Kennedy
was one of two younger brothers of US President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a US Senator from New York from 1965 until his assassination in 1968. He was one of President Kennedy's most trusted advisors and worked closely with the president during the Cuban Missile Crisis. His contribution to the African-American Civil Rights Movement is sometimes considered his greatest legacy.
Executive Order 9066
President Roosevelt, encouraged by officials at all levels of the federal government, authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona. The order also authorized transporting these citizens to assembly centers hastily set up and governed by the military in California, Arizona, Washington state, and Oregon. Although it is not well known, the same executive order (and other war-time orders and restrictions) were also applied to smaller numbers of residents of the United States who were of Italian or German descent. For example, 3,200 resident aliens of Italian background were arrested and more than 300 of them were interned. About 11,000 German residents—including some naturalized citizens—were arrested and more than 5000 were interned.
Gettysburg Address
a famous speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln in November 1863, at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. "all men are created equal"
Labor Unions
A labor union is defined as "a group of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in the key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions"Originally, labor unions were primarily made up of male, blue-collar workers; but as the economy of the United States evolved from production industries to service industries, union membership has seen a dramatic increase in white-collar and female workers.
"Civilian Conservation Corps" an agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young, unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects
the political philosophy- based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansionism-that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945 (Nazism)
Ted Kennedy
U.S. senator from Massachusetts (1962-), brother of John F. Kennedyand Robert F. Kennedy and youngest son of Joseph P. Kennedy, b. Boston, Mass. He served (1961-62) as an assistant district attorney in Massachusetts before being elected (1962) as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate. After the assassination of his brother Robert in 1968, he became the acknowledged leader of Senate liberals and served (1969-71) as assistant majority leader. His political future was marred by his involvement in the Chappaquiddick incident (July, 1969), in which Mary Jo Kopechne, a passenger, drowned when the car he was driving fell into a creek. Kennedy's reputation recovered, however, and he continued to advocate such liberal programs as national health insurance and tax reform. He was long considered a potential Democratic president, but withdrew in 1974 from the 1976 race and failed in a 1980 primary challenge to Jimmy Carter. He has chaired the Senate judiciary (1979-81), labor and human resources (1987-95), and health, education, labor, and pensions (2001-3, 2007-) committees. Kennedy is the author of Decisions for a Decade (1968) and In Critical Condition (1972).
an African-American who migrated from the South to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years
Enola Gay
the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
Korean War
a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
(offensive) a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities early in 1968
U2 incident
the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
John Steinbeck
one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. He wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939 and the novel Of Mice and Men, published in 1937. In all, he wrote twenty-five books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books and several collections of short stories. In 1962 Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Yuri Gagarin
Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space
12th Amendment
electors required to cast two distinct votes, one for president and one for vice president
Ngo Dinh Diem
leader of South Vietnam
The Bay of Pigs
The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations, which was further worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year.
Cuban Missile Crisis
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the "hottest" periods of the cold war. The Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, placed Soviet military missiles in Cuba, which had come under Soviet influence since the success of the Cuban Revolution three years earlier. President John F. Kennedy of the United States set up a naval blockade of Cuba and insisted that Khrushchev remove the missiles. Khrushchev did.
a free music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in August 1969
the South Vietnamese Communists who, with North Vietnamese support, fought against the government of South Vietnam in the Vietnam War
15th Amendment
the right to vote regardless of race
Fat Man
the code name for the plutonium-core, implosion-type atom bomb the U.S. first tested and then dropped on Nagasaki in 1945.
a newer type of warship that could splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon fire, and resist burning. it has iron or steel plating.
Joseph Stalin
Soviet politician. The successor of Lenin, he was general secretary of the Communist Party (1922-1953) and premier (1941-1953) of the USSR. His rule was marked by the exile of Trotsky (1929), a purge of the government and military, the forced collectivization of agriculture, a policy of industrialization, and a victorious but devastating role for the Soviets in World War II.
Kent State
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
Little Boy
the code name for the uranium-fueled atomic bomb dropped by the U.S. on Hiroshima in 1945
Selective Service Act
a law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service
The 38th President of the United States (1974-1977), who was appointed Vice President on the resignation of Spiro Agnew (1973) and became President after Richard Nixon's resignation over the Watergate scandal. As President, Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon (1974).
Alan Shephard
first American in Space
Ho Chi Min
leader of North Vietnam
Jim Crow Laws
laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to seperate white and black people in public and private facilities
The 37th President of the United States (1969-1974). Vice President (1953-1961) under Dwight D. Eisenhower, he lost the 1960 presidential election to John F. Kennedy. Elected President in 1968, he visited China (1972) and established détente with the USSR. Although he increased U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia, he was also responsible for the eventual withdrawal of U.S. troops. When Congress recommended three articles of impeachment for Nixon's involvement in the Watergate scandal, he resigned from office (August 9, 1974).
Mutually Assured Destruction
a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[1] It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons. The strategy is effectively a form of Nash equilibrium, in which both sides are attempting to avoid their worst possible outcome—nuclear annihilation.
American politician. A U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957), he presided over the permanent subcommittee on investigations and held public hearings in which he accused army officials, members of the media, and public figures of being Communists. His charges were never proved, and he was censured by the Senate in 1954.
American general who was the senior commander of American troops in Vietnam
Eddie Rickenbacher
an American fighter ace in World War I and Medal of Honor recipient. He was also a race car driver and automotive designer, a government consultant in military matters and a pioneer in air transportation. During his lifetime, Rickenbacker worked with many influential civilian and military leaders. He had keen insight into technology, and vision for future improvements. Among other events, he participated in or observed Armistice Day on the Western Front.
Malcolm X
member of the Black Muslims (1952-1963), he advocated separatism and Black pride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964) and was assassinated in Harlem.
Lyndon Johnson
the thirty-sixth President of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Johnson served a long career in both houses of the U.S. Congress, and in 1960 he was selected by then-Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy to be his running-mate. After Kennedy won the 1960 presidential election, Johnson became the thirty-seventh Vice President, and in 1963, he succeeded to the role of presidency following Kennedy's assassination. He was a major leader of the Democratic Party and as President was responsible for designing the Great Society, comprising liberal legislation including civil rights laws, Medicare (health care for the elderly), Medicaid (health care for the poor), aid to education, and a "War on Poverty." Simultaneously, he escalated the American involvement in the Vietnam War, from 16,000 American soldiers in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968.
"night of broken glass" a name given to the night of November 9,1938, when gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues in Germany
any of a series of Soviet earth-orbiting satellites: Sputnik I was the world's first space satellite.
Missouri Compromise
a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states

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