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WWII PART 2

Terms

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iwo jima, okinawa
japanese islands
italian invasion
significant for the allies because it weakened hitler bu forcing him to fight on another front
genocide
murder of an entire national, ethnic, racial or religious group
US and soviet union
emerged as the new world leaders after the war
george s. patton
american general; helped the joint british and american forces break through german defenses and advance towards paris
axis
hitler, moussilini, hirohito, tojo hideki
marie fourcade
french women who helped downed allied pilots escape to safety
reasons for why the allies won
location of germany; surrounded by enemies; location of japan; dependent on inported goods; poor military decisions by axis leaders; huge productive capability of US; better technology developed and used by allies
battle of midway
battle fought entirely from the air; the US destroyed four japanese carriers and more than 250 planes devastating blow to the japanese
hiroshima
city in japan where they dropped the atomic bomb on august 6, 1945
nagasaki
city in japan where US dropped the second atomic bomb; more than 40,000 people were killed august 8, 1945
nuremberg
city in germany where the allies held war crimes trials against axis leaders who had committed "crimes against humanity" (like the holocaust)
battle of the bulge
took place in belgium as the allied forces advanced, germany launched a massive counterattack; germans were unable to breakthrough
five permanent members of the security council
the US, soviet union, britain, france and china; has the right to veto any council decision in order to ensure peace
the big three
roosevelt, churchill, and stalin
incessant
round-the-clock, ceaseless, uniterupted
yalta conference
the three leaders (roosevelt, churchill, and stalin) agreed that the soviet union would enter the war against japan within three months of germanys surrender; the soviets would take possession of southern sakhalin island; the kuril islands and an occupation zone in korea. that germany would be divided into four zones to be governed by americans, french, british, and soviet forces
security council
smaller body in the UN that had greater power than the general assembly
battleship missouri
the ship where the formal peace treaty was signed between japan and the allied forces
reasons why allies were able to defeat the axis powers in europe
had to fight on several different fronts at the same time - hitler made poor military decisions; US was producing twice as much as all of the axis powers combimed; oil became scarce and the german airforce (luftwaffe) was unable to use its planes
rosie the riveter
character that symbolized women; women replaced men in war industry jobs; they built ships and planes and produced munitions
why did the allies hold war crimes trials for axis leaders?
to hold them accountable for the terrible crimes they committed against people during the war
what post war issues caused the western allies and the soviet union to disagree?
stalin wanted to spread communism and create a buffer zone of friendly governments as a defense against germany. roosevelt and churchill wanted stalin to promise "free elections" in eastern europe
d-day
june 6, 1944; the day the allies invaded france at normandy
manhattan project
code name for research on the atomic bomb
what strategy did general mac arthur use to fight the japanese in the pacific
island hopping
inevitable
avoidable, inescapable
alamogordo, new mexico
where the first atomic bomb was successfully tested
stalingrad
city in russia; named after stalin
kamikaze
suicide pilots
united nations
delegates from 50 nations met in san francisco to write a charter
west germany
became a democratic nation
emperor hirohito
ruler of japan - forced the government to surrender on august 10, 1945
war bonds
government raised money by selling bonds to citizens; citizens "lent" the government money that would be returned with interest later
battle of the coral sea
first serious setback for the japanese; attacks were carried out by planes launched from aircraft carriers
east germany
remained under soviet control; installed a socialist dictatorship
truman doctrine
truman said it must be the policy of the US to support free people and limit communism to the areas already under soviet control
how did the allies mobilize all of their resources for the war effort?
ordered factories to stop making cars or refrigerators and to turn out airplanes or tanks instead; government rationed or controlled the amount of food and other goods that consumers could buy; sold war bonds to raise money; prices and wages were also regulated; limited the rights of all citizens, censored the press and used propaganda to win public support for the war
douglas mac arthur
american general in the philipines
general rommel "desert fox"
one of hitlers commanders in north africa
"island hopping"
goal of this campaign was to recapture some japanese held islands while by passing others. the captured islands served as stepping stones to the next goal
puppet government
a government that is appointed by and whose affairs are directed by an outside authority that may impose hardships on those governed
dwight eisenhower
american general took command of a joint british and american force in morocco and algeria. the allies were able to trap rommels army which surrendered in may 1943
lily litvak
soviet pilot; shot down 12 german planes before she was killed
warsaw pact
military alliance formed by the soviet union and satellites in eastern europe; to keep order; cemented the division of europe into eastern and western blocs
british death march
65 mile march; the japanese killed several hundred american soldiers and 10,000 filipino soldiers
bernard montgomery
british general who helped the americans defeat rommel in north africa
allies
FDR, henry truman, chamberlain, churchill, stalin, charles ole gaulle
total war
nations devoted all of their resources to the war effort
nato
north atlantic treaty organization; a new military alliance with the US, canada and ten other countries; pledged to help one another if any one of them were attacked
atomic bomb
instantly killed more than 70,000 people and flattened four square miles
admiral chester nimitz
commander of the US navy; was blockading japan
the cold war
was a state of tension and hostility between nations aligned with the US on one side and the soviet union on the other
holocaust
most well known case of genocide
harry truman
american president who took office after franklin roosevelt died unexpectedly
aircraft carrier
ships that transport aircraft and accomdate the take off and landing of planes
battle of stalingrad
costliest battle of the war; germans were defeated by the russians
v-e day
victory in europe; wair in europe ends may 8, 1945
guadalcanal
in the soloman islands where the US marines landed
technology that helped win the war
deadier bombs; dive bombers, machines that broke secret codes; radar; improved sonar technology (sound waves); nylon parachutes
amphibious
land and water
UN charter
each of the member nations has one vote in the general assembly
the marshall plan
a massive aid package offered by US they gave food and economic assistance to europe to help countries rebuild

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