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Global Governance
: international Law and Institutions serve as mechanisms to address issues that transcend state boundaries, fostering cooperation for mutually beneficial outcomes.
Hegemonic Stability
One Hegemon state sets and enforces the rules for global economy- defending the seas to make them safe for world trade, making loans to struggling countries, etc. Colombian-American Free Trade agreement that has stalled in congress be
Intergovernmental organizations created through treaties for a common purpose.
Nongovernmental Organizations: groups that are not directly related to governments but are organized to take part in international affairs. Religious orders, Humanitarian organizations, and terrorist groups.
fed globalization by providing a forum in which States could discuss affairs.
International Law
A body of rules that binds states and other agents in world politics in their relations with one another.
A permanent court that has the power to try crimes that are part of a systematic plan or policy, such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.
Nuclear Club/weapons arsenals
Nine states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. US, Russia, UK, France, China, (all signed NPT) (India, Pakistan, and North Korea)(Israel). The last three are widely accepted and known to have nuclear weapons but they haven’t signed the NPT- resulted from NPT.
Strategic/tactical military forces
Strategic is designed at attack long-range targets, including cities. Tactical is designed to attack short-or-medium range targets, primarily conventional military assets.
Missile tech
developed during the arms race⬦ must be able to launch nuclear technology somehow.
Multiple Independently targeted re-entry vehicles
Attempt to prevent war by discouraging a possible aggressor by convincing them that the probable cost of attack will not be worth the anticipated gain.
Attempts to force an adversary to reverse some action that has already been taken. America’s strategy to take care of North Korea.
Security Dilemma
When distrust runs so high between states that when each seeks to increase its defensive capabilities, the other perceives that as a threat and increases its own, creating an arms race
signatory nations without nuclear weapons will not seek to build them and will accept safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material and technology from peaceful uses to weapons programs. Resulted in Nuclear Club
SALT I(1972), which was signed by Nixon and Brezhnev, restricted the development of ABM and capped the growth of offensive missiles. SALT II(1979) was signed by Carter and Brezchev, but was criticized because the new treaty left American land-based ICBM’s vulnerable to a surprise Soviet attack- and thus the treaty was never ratified.
A missile designed to destroy incoming missiles or their warheads before they hit the designated targets.
START I(1991) Treaty between the United States and USSR that set a limit on the amount of nuclear weapons that each country may have. It removed about 80% of all nuclear weapons then in existence. START II(1993)- banned the use of MIRV’s. was signed but not ratified.
Complex Interdependence
Multiple channels of interaction between societies and the absence of a hierarchy of issues, all in order to bring about a decline in the use of military force and coercive power in international relations.
tarriffs and non tarriff barriers
Tarriffs are taxes importers must pay before their goods can enter a country.
general agreement on tarriff and trade.International bodies dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
): general connectivity and interdependence globally (culturally, technologically, politically, militarily, economically, etc). Often used strictly economically to reference the increased mobility of goods, services, labor, and technology throughout the world.
World Bank
An international financial institution that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs to reduce poverty.
Part of the Bretton Woods system. It is a global lending agency that aids industrialized nations in stabilizing economies. Now it promotes market economics, free trade, and high trade rates.
alternate terms:DC, Core, 1st World/2nd World): Countries that are developed economically, militarily politically, and technologically
alternate terms:LDC, Periphery, 3rd World): Countries that are not developed, etc.
Settler/elite colonialism
Immigrants seize land from the indigenous population and become the dominant population. Elite colonialism: Indigenous leaders are replaced by a European political and economic elite, but the native population remains essentially in place, thus much of the culture remains intact.
Modernization Theory
Socio-economic theories of development involving assumptions about progress occurring in stages from traditional societies to modern ones.
Dependency Theory
based on the assumption that the process of the world economic systems development privileged a few countries while leaving the rest disadvantaged and vulnerable to exploitation.
mport subsidized industrialization(does not let anything in): Isolate economy, no free trade, focus on YOUR consumer, import raw materials, no MNC investment, central govt driven.
Export subsidized industrialization(concentrates on exports): focus on exports, participate in free trade, Multinational corporations encouraged, market driven. Four Factors to switch from ESI to ISI: Population Growth, Migration, Health/Disease, and Environment.
G77-New International Economic Order
A loose coalition of developing nations designed to promote their collective economic interests.
NIC/Four Dragons/Four Tigers
Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. They soon became financial and technological leaders.- all switched to ESI.
Debt Crisis
“Latin American Debt Crisis” Many Latin American countries borrowed large sums of money to industrialize, and incurred large amounts of debt when oil prices skyrocketed during the economic recession of the 70’s. Now, Latin America has resolved those financial issues to a point, they are being hit no harder than other countries,
"Real" Development Model
World Bank initiated Build bridges and such to create jobs and a more solid infrastructure.
Demographic Transition
Changes in the characteristics of human populations, including rate of growth, average age, literacy, etc. As states industrialize, birth and death rates stabilize and population growth levels off.
Economic Migration
Migration across state borders in order to pursue a job or escape economic crisis.
Refugees are people who flee their country to escape danger or persecution. Internally Displaced People stay within their own state borders.
A humanitarian organization that aids in the development of national health administrations and provides advisory services.

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