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history 2112 final review


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radical republicans
-bent on stern peace and the r
rights of freedmen
-liked stern treatment of cofederate leaders
-in 1866 congressional elections put a 3:! rep. majority in conress
-centered around radical
-believed that reconstruction was concerned with remaking southern society
-wanted southern society competely changed as well as the union to be reunited during the reconstruciton
-wanted plantations broken into small farms
-wanted blacks to have civil and political rights -- right to vote
-grant was rep. reps. and replaced by hayes
-eventually lost its power and was accused of corruption
-freedment worked as renter exchanging labor for the use of land, house, suplies, and turn over half to a third of their crops to to the land owner
-unfair and unequal relationship b/t landowner and sharecropper
-faced debt and liens
-cotton prices ended up declinin in the 1870, put sharcroppers in huge debt
-resulted in a stagnant economy
-ended up setting back freedmen
1876 election and crisis of 1877
-Hayes (rep.) vs. Tilden (dem.)
-tilden led in popular vote, but rep. govt. accused dem. govt. of intimdiation and fraud since it was their machinery
-ended up being 2 sets of votes for FL, SC, and LA
-1877 congress put together an electoral commission to settle it (7 rep. 7. dem., Joeseph B. Bradley (deciding member)
-dem. stalled final count, but hayes won and was still inagugerated
transcontinental railroad
-help to connect pacific territories to the rest of the country
-north and south fought over where terminus should be
-fed. govt. awarded land grants and millions of dollars to the companies building it
-union pacific built westward from omaha
-central pacific built eastward from sacramento
-rr finally met an promotory, UT
-economy improved in 1878 and more track was built
-brought oppurtunity to the west
-much of labor used was chinese immigrants
-homestead act
-offered 160 acres of public land to newcomers
-rr companies were selling their unused land for cheap
and giving out cheap rr tickets
-benfits such as agriculture, fertile soil, were advertised al over
-women began having to the mens work on farms at times
-a lot of swedish and norweigan
-kansas was breifly a place of racial freedom
-life was difficult but farming technology was better
-during the dry years in the 1880s, some barely held on while others learned dry farming methods
wounded knee
-last tragic episode of the plains indians
-occurred at wounded knee, SD
-soldiers attempted to diarm the souix and a fight broke out
-many indians died and very few americans died
-marked the end of the war against the plains indians
frederick w. taylor
-believed that the engineers appraoch should be taken when managing workers
-invented scientific management
-engineers would do time and motion studies to see who worked the fastest
-the faster a person worked, the more they got paid
-scientific management itself was not a huge success, but it changed the face of management
andrew carnegie
-exploited steel
-erected a steel mill outside of pittsburg
-his factory was the cause of the homestead strike
-when thought that machines could replace many of his workers w/ advanced machinery and now did not want to deal with unions
pullman strike
-georga w pullman lowered his employees salaries but not their rents
-workers belonged to the american railway union
-members were urged not use pullman's sleeping cars
-had a negative effect on postal service b/c his sleeping cars were always attatched to mail cars
-eventually leads of the strike, including debs, were jailed and the strike ended
dwight moody
former chicago shoe salesmen and YMCA official

preached an optimistic and nondenominational message
Williams vs. Mississippi
validated methods of disenfranchising rep. southern states
as long as race was not an issue, it was not going against the 15th ammendement
-reps. who did not like the current candidate (james g. blain)
-name meant pompous or self important; had an indian orgin
-more adept at molding politcal oppinion than running the govt.
-defined term of political debate
-denied machine system
-grover cleveland was the dem. candidate they liked
populist party
"people's party"; confidence distinguised by many women in the movement; james b. weaver was their presidential candidate; for the first time an argarian protest change the two party system; part was created by farmers
election of 1896
Mckinley was elected --> republican; william jennings bryan was the populist/democratic candidate; mckinley won by a lot; bryans evengelical style ended up being a setback
jane addams
believed that uplifting would make her feel uplifted; helped to establish the hull house; also led batles for garbage removal, playgrounds, better street lights, and police protection; believed that women should stand for peave
federal reserve act
gave the nation a banking system resitant to financial panic; delegated operational functions to 12 district reserve banks; FR had the power to issue currency based on the assets w/in the system; resolved cash shortages experienced during the run on banks; set interest rates and strengthened banking system
alfred t. mahan
Ameria's leading naval strategist
believed that control of the sea was a key to imperial power
advocated builing a canal across central america
wanted to colonize strategic naval points
proposed a battle ship fleet capable of striking and enemy far from shore
panama canal
US lent assistance to Panama during their fight for independence, which led them to be able to get a strip of land that they needed to build the canal; opened in 1914to give the US a commanding strategic position
open door policy
right for equal trade access in China; it would still be preserved as territorial and administrative enemy
zimmerman telegram
-zimmerman was a german minister in mexico city
-wanted mexico to join the central powers of the war
-in return germany promised to help mexico regain the terriory that it had lost to america
-this info. was leaked via. telegram
treaty of verailles
peace treaty, senate did not fully support it
The Meuse-Argonne campaign
cost over 26,000 american lives, pushed the enemy back across the river; selle river ear Verdun and broke german defenses defenses
teapot dome
one of the more damaging of several scams caused by the secret leasing of govt. oil resrves in teapot dome in wyoming and elk hill, CA

obtained without competitive bidding

albert fall was evetually convicted of taking bribes

this was all discovered after hardings death
League of Women Voters
a white women’s organization that tried to lobbied for reform registration, esp. for black women; one of their biggest accomplishments was the 1921 passage of the Sheppard-Towner Fed. Maternity and Infancy Act which appropriated $1.25 million for well-baby clinics, educational programs, and visiting nurse proj.; in 1929 funding for the act was cut off b/c Congress was no longer afraid of the female vote
anti-immigrant/foreign sentiment
fueled a new drive against immigration
bans were were placed on immigration from parts europe an china and japan
loohole still allowed immigrants from the western hemmisphere
brought back the KK
southern tenant farmers union
founded in 1934; many African Americans joined it to try to protect themselves from the desperate situation that they were in; welcomed both blacks and whites; landowners tried to repress ad harass the union b/c they did not want sharecroppers to organize; in the end they could not do too much to reform the system;
dust bowl
took place in 1930-1941; farmers had stripped land of its native vegitation; when the winds came and the rais came, nothing remained to hold the soil; dust even seeped into houses; promoted a mass exodous from the plains; they wre called “okies”, their crops were ruined, many lost their homes; many heaed off to California; grapes of wrath
bonus army
a ragtag group of 15,000 unemployed WWI veterans; hitchhiked to Washington to demand immediate payment of their bonuses; originally scheduled for 1945; their encampent was burnt to the ground; many people were injured; Hoover’s opularity was much lower because of this
bank holiday
-march 5, 1933
-euphamism for the closing of all banks due to congress calling a special session
-4days later congress passed roosevelts emerency banking bill
-permitted banks to open only the treas. dept. inspection showed sufficient reserves
indian reoganization act
Indian new deal; reversed that Dawes Act of 1887; promoted more self govt. through tribes; promoted cultural pluralism rather than assimilation; the main problem was that it tried to treat all tribes as identical when they were not; it really helped some tribes while it hurt others
Indian new deal; reversed that Dawes Act of 1887; promoted more self govt. through tribes; promoted cultural pluralism rather than assimilation; the main problem was that it tried to treat all tribes as identical when they were not; it really helped some tribes while it hurt others
atlantic charter
-created by roosevelt and churchill
-conferrd secretly to discuss military strategy known as atlantic charter
-provided ideological foundation of the western economic and of the peave to follow
-called for economic collaboration for gauranteed political stability after war
-supported free trade, national self-determination, and the principle of collective security
Security Council of the United Nations
agreed that the the 5 major allied powers, the US, China, Britain, France, the Soviet Union, plus 6 other nations elected on a rotating basis; it was decided that permanent members would have power to veto central assembly decisions
manmamanhatten project
project assosciated with developing the atomic bomb; cost $2 billion and employed 120,000 people in Alamos, new mexico; first test in alamogdro, NM on july 16, 1945; a month later Truman order to bombs to be dropped on japan
marshall plan
proposed by sec. of state george marshall to provide economic support as well as military aide to Europe; believed it would help the Us to forestall severe economic dislocation; required that foreign aide dollar be spend on US goods and services; thought that a stronger west german economy would provide a good market for US goods; also helped to be proposed by children; at first congress opposed the plan; after a coup in Czechoslovakia, congress began to support the plan more because of the prospect of the soviets taking over; voted in in 1948; got bipartisan support; did not specifically exclude eastern Europe or the soviet untion, but required that all participating nations exhange economic info. and work towards eliminating tariffs and trade barriers; accleterated American and European efforts to rebuild wesetern germany;
Taft-Hartley Act
1947; a rollback of the national labor relations act; unions disliked section 14b which outlawed closed shop and allowed states to pass right to work laws that further limited unions operations; by prohibiting the use of their dues for political activity and alloed the presdisent to declare an 80 day cooling off period; in strikes that had national impactct; Truman vetoed it and congress overrode it; northern liberals wanted it repealed
congeressman martin dies of texas and other conservatives launched the House committee on Un-American Activites to investigate alleged Facist and Communist influence in labor unions and new deal agencies; gained heightened visability after the war, especiallyafter revelations in 1946 of a soviet spy ring operating in Canada accentuated US fears of soviet subversion; help to spark the great fea by holding widely publicized hearings on alleged communist infiltration in the film industry; “Hollywood 10” people were blacklisted because of this so they could nt get work or they were put in jail; alger hiss case.
mccarren-walter act
ended chinese and japanese exclusion
bay of pigs
; after landing at cuba’s bay of pigs on april 17 the tiny force of 1400 men was crushed by castro’s troops; after this, US-Soviet relations weakened even more; after the failed invasion, the kennedy administration increased economic pressure for Cuba to overthrow Castro
Immigration Act of 1965
): abandoned the quota system of the 1920s, which discriminated against Asians and southern and eastern europeans; replaced this with a more equirable numeric limitson immigration from Europe, asia, Africa, and countires in the western hemisphere; the leistlation led to an immigrant influx far greater than anticipated, with the heaviest volume coming from Asia and latin America;
naval bill of 1890
calle for th construction of a new navy
MahaSpansih american war
Us takes of spanish colonies in a brief contest; most fighting occurred in Cuba and the Phillipines
causes of the spanish american war
-free cuba movement: cuba wanted to be free from spain; america learned how poorly the cubans were treated
-yellow press: sensationalist; highlighted the misery in cuba
-Us sugar investment: many sugar producers were interested i investing in sugar
-the Maine incident
how the spanish american war effected the US
-caused unity
-only 4 months of fighting
-led people to wonder where the phillipenes wer based on a vicotry that occurred there
-made roosevelt look like a hero
after the spanish american war
the phillipenes dilemma:
emilio aguinaldo: could lead in the phillipenes, was expecting full indpendence
anti-imperialist feelings in the US: arguing against colonization
McKinley ended up creating a formal colony anyway
boxer rebellion
1900; movement against europeans; US came to aid to protect sphere of influence
classical liberalism
personal freedom from govt. control
advocated by John Locke
"connected society"
adam smith (Wealth of Nations): believed that people would look after eachother
free market economy
private property
free market
lark marx and fredrick engles
classless society
state run economy
property=govt. owned
traditional artisans
family farms
workshop economy
industrial rev. threatened producerism
seen in early america
lone wolf vs. hitchcock
settles govt. having control over any tribal groups
immigration from china (1840-1870)
mainly men
gold rush in CA
came to work on RRs
originally they did not need to be citizens to come in or citizens to stay
anti-chinese movement (1870s)
economic depression in US
Workingman's party of CA: basic goal ad opinion was to get the chinese out; made up of primarily irish
chinese exclusion act of 1882
prohibited chinese from entering the U for 10 yrs.
no naturalization for chinese already here
if chinese returned to china, they could not come back the US
first immigration restriction placed on a certain group
1890s: crisis decade
disinfranchisement of black voters
jim crowe laws
northern apathy
Plessy vs. ferguson
1896, 14th ammendment; established seperate but equal
indian citizenship 1865
not US citizens
mini sovergn nations
domestic dependent nations
basic types of citizenship:
jus soli
jus sanguins
jus soli: by birth place
jus sanguins: citizenship by ethinic or racial bloodline
elk vs. wilkins
despite jus soli, indians still are not citizens
dawes act
-indians became US citizens
-tribal govts. established
-communal lands partitioned
-indian lands sold to finance indian boarding schools
reconstruction ammendments
13th: abolished slavery
14th: gave freedmen citizenship
15th: african american men could vote
new deal
desire to return to the way that things used to be
second reconstruction
civil rights movement
origins of preogressivism
urban-industrial probs.

new middle class professionals


female social workers
targets of progressivism
big business
corrupt govt.
social problems
basic progressive ideas
the world can get better if we take intellegent action

an orderly society is a good society

professional experts should lead, not the extremely rich and not the working class

democracy of the people
progressives and bigness
tried to fit american life to bigness

big business: power concentrated amoung too few

big labor: werent sure what to about this
election of 1912
Taft (rep.): hand chosen to by roosevelt, but was not doing things his way
debs (soc.) wanted public ownership
wilson (dem.): coservative, moderate progressive, thought big corps should be punished, but govt. should not get bigget
roosevelt (prog./bull-moose):relationship b/t bit corops and american govt.

Wilson=anti-corp. and TR=pro-corp.

Wilson won
congress of industrial organization
a new union is started, reached out to industrial workers, but still functioned like a craft guild, organized an entire industry; rival to the AFL; grew quickly due to Waner act; organized industries

AFL's response? wants to compete with CIO; massive gains for unions
election of 1932
Hoover and GOP; franklin roosevelt and new deal promise; roosevelt wins by a landslide;
first 100 days of the new deal
new programs; w/in weeks they started working
goals of first new deal
to repair economy
provide immediate relief
save capitalism by reforming it
the new deal moves left
business men condemned FDR (1934)
Huey Long's popularity--> wanted to run for pres. and was killed
Townsend plan: old age pension
congresional election: victory for liberal democrats
2nd new deal
goal: to create a welfare state
2nd new deal --> key programs
social security: old age pension and unemployment insurance

wagner act: strong protection for unions; natl. labor relations board
the great migration
-1915-1920: african american leave the south
-after 1920: millions more
-sharecroppers go to industrial north
-some middle class went west
-largest movement of blacks in history
reasons for great migration?
why not?
why not sooner?
push pull: Jim Crow was a push, also for middle class there is sense that they may lose all that they have achievevd; pull: wartime labor shortage
benefits for migrants (great migration)
social freedom
the vote
downsides for migrants (great migration)
white backlash
ghetto formation
larger significance of the great migration
black life shifts from farms to cities
black political power rose
major cultural developmentin the Harlem Rennasance
mcclauren vs. Ok state regents
a sepate law school facility was unequal b/c it did not have the same rep.
brown vs. board of education
brown chosen as a symbol; seperate but equal has no place in public education

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