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Soc Exam #3


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Family definitions
1. Kinship- linked by blood, marriage or adoption.
Kinship Levels- Primary, Secondary (grandparents, niece) Tertiary (cousins, great nephew) Beyond (brothers daughters son’s son)
2. Membership characteristics: lives under one roof and expresses love and solidarity, compared to ideal as nontraditional, dysfunctional or at-risk
3. legal recognition: gov’t says married
4. Social functions are met
Functions of family
Regulate sexual behaivor, replace members of society who die, socialize the young, provide care and emotional support, transfer social status
Family Types
Orientation (family born into), extended (grandparents), procreation (make own kids)
Facts about divorce
easier to get divorce, women more independent, premarital cohab, premarital child bearing, early age, childless marriage, low income, parents divorced
Marriage & Bible
levirate (widow marries brother of husband), arranged marriages, polygamy
1 husband many wives
1 wife many husbands
traced through fathers lineage
traced through both
Nuclear family
parents, immediate children
3+ generations
people who share same residence
Reproductive work
not only bearing children but caregiving, managing households, and educating children
norms encouraging marriage of different social category
norms encouraging marriage in same social category
Changing families in US
1900- 80% children had mother working in house or farm, 2% both parents worked, 10% had 1 parent homes
Today- 25% father is breadwinner, 44% both parents work, 28% single parents
Infant mortality down 99.9 to 6.8 out of 1,000 live births
Changing Family in Japan
ie family system: multigenerational household, submit to older generation, falling out, first born son
Parasite singles: people don’t have kids and live with parents fearing stress of childbearing
Common Themes of Change
decline of parental authority, changing status of children, kids not seen as economic contributors but hinderances
Facts on Education:
80% of American 15 yos expect a high skilled white collar job by 30, less than 50% o Czech, French and German 15 yo’s expect the same thing
Less tan 10% of American high school students are in vocational programs, 35.6 and 80.7% of Euro students are enrolled in vocational programs
US doesn’t require students to learn 1 other language, Euro Union countries mandate foreign language by age 6
US teachers spend more hours in direct contact with students that European
Functions of Education
Learning knowledge and skills
Cultural values (competition part of society, individualism, patriotism, etc.)
Sorts people based on talents on gifts for jobs
Marriage at college, matchmaking
Hidden curriculum
everything else that is learned (values, attitudes, behavior, habits, etc)
Obey authority
Acceptance of inequality
Conditioning to boredm
Working Class Kids more likely to do worse than middle class kids in school because:
Not b/c lack of intelligence, intelligence is socially defined
Not b/c parents lack of pushing kids, economic constraints always exist
School is middle class institution
Funding for schools from property tax, better area better school
Bourdieu’s study: CULTURAL CAPITAL
Schools use methods and questions biased towards middle class values
Bernstein’s study:
Restricted languag
uses unfinished sentences with verbal intonation and gestures to give meaning, used in working class homes
Bernstein’s study Elaborated Language:
completely verbalized and full sentences, middle class homes
Result: working class kids have to learn new language because elaborated language is what is expected
Rist: Labeling theory:
negative and positive labels become self fulfilling prophecies, first 8 days in kindergarten teachers sorted children in ‘fast learners’ and ‘slow learners’, actually sorted by social class, impacted leadership effort teasing, was passed into the 1st grade, (hidden curriculum: segregation, hierarchy, limiting expectations)
Bilingual education:
teachers teach in tailor simple English to let students absorb language while still learning
teaches in native language then in theory transitions into mainstream english classes in a few years
builds on skills in native language and teaches english as a second language
Social context (education_)
: schools still segregated, more black= more poor, test scores effected by family background
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
a false definition that people assume and behave as it were true which then makes it true
Adolecent Subculture
: formed after children weren’t needed in subculture, boys achieved status by athletics and girls by social standing
Tanas Lecture:
/11 reasons by Osama: 1. Presence of US troops in SA, UN sanctions against Iraq, US and Isreal oppress palestine, TOP 6 Muslim COUNTRIES AREN⬝T MIDDLE EASTERN OR ARAB
world war II, start of isreali conflict
Sociology of Religion:
Seeks to understand
Similarities and differences between religious experiences
How religion relates to other institutions
Consequences of religious activity
Stats about Religion
more people describe themselves as very happy, not too big of correlation of God and happiness, 94ﬥ believe in God
Durkeim’s Definition of religion
beliefs about sacred and profane, rituals and community of worshippers
Sacramental religions
religions which sacred is sought in places, objects, and actions believed to house a god or spirit
Prophetic Religions
sacred revolved around items that symbolize historical events or the lives and teachings of great people
Mystical Religions
religions sacred is sought in states of being that exclude awareness of existence, sensations, thoughts and surroundings
Types of Religious organization
largest) Ecclesia
teaching and practices are outside of cultural traditions of society
Usually viewed as deviant or evil
Charismatic leaders
Adopt a new lifestyle
Most cults fail
All major religions began as cults
(largest) Ecclesia
State Religion
Integrated into dominant culture
rules that govern how people behave in presence of sacred to achieve acceptance
US crude birth rate
14 per 1000 population
Civil Religion
where religion and nationalism intersect
Functions of Religion
Helps people cope with uncertainty, life, death, misfortunes and injustice
Creates emotional bonds to other believers
Provides ideas of what is right, good
Fundamentalism Characteristics
1. Authority of sacred writing which is interpreted literally
2. “evil” results from digression from sacred principles
3. Religion governs all areas of life
4. Emerges as reaction to perceived threat (what may be perceived as threatening?)
5. Reverse trend toward gender equality
process where relgious influence on any society gets smaller, usually because of new scientifitc discoveries, western influence
Liberation Theology
modern religion has a duty to liberate the oppressed in inter cities or 3rd world countries
Religious Trends
Sunday 9-11 is most segregated hour in america
Increasing proportion of Americans belong to a Church (60-70%)
(86% claim they are “religious”)
(94% “believe in God)
The Role of Class and Race (conflict theory)
Religion is stratified by social class and race
Presbyterians/Episcopalians/Jews- upper classes
Baptists/evangelicals/Lutherans/Catholics- lower classes
Religious- muslims try to follow god against all inner desires
Political- fundamental muslims killing non muslims
Countries with the Largest Population: low income
1. China 1.3 billion
2. India- 1.05 billion
3. US- 300 Million
4. Indonesia 238 million
5. Brazil- 184 million
6. Pakistan- 153 million
Malthus theorem
only moral way to prevent pop increase was delayed marriage or celibacy
May 11th, 2000 5:05am
India’s 1 billionth member born “a moment of celebration , a moment to ponder”
Demographic indicators
study and size of growth of pop through fertility, mortality and immigration
Changes in Mortality
Crude death rate= number of deaths/ 1,000 people in a year
US in 2000= 8.8
Demographic Transitions
Process by which societies change from high birth/death rates to low birth/death rates as a result of development
Stage 1
high death rates = high birth rates, little pop growth
Life expectancy=30, women must have 7 kids to have at least 2 survive
Stage 2
- Death rate declines while birth rate remains high
Western europe- 1750’s increased food supply, medical advancements and technology
Stage 3
decline in birth rates as death rate levels off
Western Europe- 188’s change in eco value of children, infant mortality and female status
Stage 4
Stable birth and death rates
Western europe- 192’s= little population growth
increase in number of cities and growth of the population living in cities
Demography: study of size and growth of populations through
1. fertility (births)
2. Mortality (deaths)
3. migration
group of people who share common characteristic or life event
Population growth:
Natural increase’ (births- deaths) + Net Migration
Demographic Trap
the point at which population growth overwhelms the environments carrying capacity
Factors contribuiting to fertility decline
Biological factors: number of women of childbearing age, health of women
Social Factors: roles of women in society
Opinion about ideal family
Practice of abortion
Available partners
Employment of women
Government policies
Child mortality
Child Labor
Mega City
urban agglomeration with 10 million
Dec 3, 1984 40 tons of toxic chemical used in making pesticides escaped form Union Carbide storage tank contaminating the entire city of Bhopal India causing the largest unplanned exodus in the industrial age. 22,149 official deaths since the incident due to exposure. Lung and liver related problems effect working capabilities. Union carbide paid Indian Gov’t 470 million but only about half of the 578,000 people receiving $300-500 per person. 20 years later accident still hasn’t been contained and Union Carbide won’t release helpful information for doctors about composition of released gas to protect it’s trade secrets.

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