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APWH Final exam study guide


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The emergence of agriculture or the neolithic revolution, caused all of the following except
the introduction of artistic expression and the disappearance of hunter-gatherer communities.
The neolithic revolution first occured in
the middle east
Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools for all of the following reasons except
They were easier for ordinary poeple to produce in mass at home
The tigris-euphrates civilization, sumeria, produced the
first writing system.
Which river valley civilization was characterized by isolation?
The Hwang-Ho
Compared with a Chinese nobleman, a peasant in classical China different in all of the following except
dependence on land as the basic economic resource
The "Son of Heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the followiing except
preist's control of the state
Ceremoney became an important part of upper-class chinese life because the Chinese believed that
poeple should restrain crude impulses
Which of the following was a confucian belief
A good society has a firm hierarchy
One fo China's key economic strengths was
high levels of technological innovation
Daoists would disagree with confucianists on all of the following except
basic harmony of nature
The Aryan conquerors brought to India
new agricultural techniques
Nirvana meant
full union with the divine essense
Hinduism urged that
all living creatures participated in the divine essence
Compared to China, Indian social and economic structure
gave greater lattitude to merchants
In the classical period, both china and india
showed considerable tolerance for different religions
Greek and Roman agriculture
tended to develop large, commercial estates
Compared with modern American ideas about democracy, Athenian democracy was distinctive in
urging that all citizens participate directly in law and policy making.
The Socratic method emphasized the importance of
Greek and Hellenistic involvement and impact in science
stressed the regional regularities of nature
Roman emperors tried to conetnt the masses by
organizing food supplies and distribution
Republican Romans and decomcratic Athenians would have agreed that all of the following were politically important except
division of poweres within the state
The spread of buddhism to china is an example of
cultural diffusion
after 200 CE, an increasing number of poeple in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt faiths characterized by
By 600, looking at the entire world, a good definition of barbarian would be someone who
is not part of a civilization
Nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires becuase
they were more skilled as horsemen
Everywhere it spread, Buddhism stressed
meditation and ethical behavior
The lessons of late han china and the late Roman empire are that the decline of a civilization, whether temporary or permanent
is not simply the result of attack by outside invaders
During the abbasid period, the status of women in Islamic communities
declined, in part, as a result of the growing culutreal influence of the conquered populations such as the persians
During the Abbasid period, slavery
was typical of unskilled occupations in the county and the cities
Prior to Muhammed's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was
a mixture of animism and polytheism
The religous practices that are incumbent on all muslims are referred to as
the "five pillars" of faith
Which of the following statements concerning the resistance of the Byzantine empire to islamic attacks is morst accurate
the byzantine empire was more resilient than the Sassanian empire, but still suffered the loss of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine to the Arabs
Which of the following statements concerning Muhammed's flight to Medina is not correct?
Muhammad fled from mecca with nearly on quarter of the city's population
How did Islam and Hinduism differ
Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system.
What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid Empire?
Despite political disintegration and a decline in the agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly
What was the nature of cultural exchange during the Crusades?
The crusaders adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals amoung other things
In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam
The turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire
Which of the following was not a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century CE
the collapse of the cities
What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid
canidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers
What was the weakness of the African commercial economy
Africa tendeed to export bullion and raw materials for manufactured products from abroad.
What accounted for the downfalll of Songhay
invasion by a moroccan muslim army equipped with fire arms
How did contact with the muslim world affect the african slave trade
With the the muslim conquests of North Africa and commercial penetration to the south, slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly.
With what markets did the east african towns trade?
with india china persian gulf and the markets in the hinterlands west of the urbanized coast.
What was typical of the African societies not affeted by either Islam or Christianity?
lack of systems of writing
To what extent did Islam successfully penetrate the poplations of East Africa?
Islam pentrated very little into the interior amoun the hunters, pastoralists, and farmers, and event he areas near the trading towns remained relativy unaffected.
The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following except
the empires conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of all of the middle east.
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the cultural influence of the byzantine empire?
Ultimatly, the empire's most important stepchild was Russia
Which of the following represents a similiarity between the spread of civilization in eastern Europe?
more northley political units in both halves of europe struggled for political definition.
Which of the following was a result of Justinian's war of reconquest?
weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers witht eh persians.
Which of the following was a result of the conflict between the Byzantine empire and the arab muslims?
The position of the small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates.
In which of the following ways were the Byzantine empire and China similar?
There was an elaborate, trained bureaucracy whose education was based on classical models in both countries.
Where was the greatest concetration of urbanizaation after the tenth century?
Italy and low countries
Which of the following was a result of the crusades?
The crusade shelped to open the west to new cultural and economic unfluences from the Middle East
How did the intellectual endeavors of medieval scholars differ before and after 1000?
Before 1000, scholars were limited to copying ancient texts, but after 1000, a greater syntheis of rationalism and theology was achieved.
Which of the following was not true of women's experiences in the middle ages?
women led religous services
Which of the following was not a result of the Hundred Years War of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
an English victory
Which of the following developments was not a result of the improved economy of the High middle ages?
Conflicts between peasants and landlords became rare, if they did not disappear completely
Which of the following statements concerning the population of the Americas is most true?
The population of the Americas was probably close to contemporary Europses excluding Russia
Which of the following practices was common to the Aztec and Inca empires?
a tribute system
during the postclassical period, societies in the Americas
remained entirely seperate from those of the old world
What civilization did the aztecs succeed in central Mexico?
What form of government was the basis for the imperial structure of the Aztecs during their first settlement in the valley of mexico?
What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system?
From a loose association of clans, aztec society became more hierarchical
Which of the following statements concerning the situation at the end of the Qin-Han period is most accurate?
Non-chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings.
Which of the following dynasties did not fall into the chronological period following the political chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han?
The support of which of the following groups was most critical to the reunification of China under the Sui?
the nomadic warrior elite
What was the attitude of the tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry?
The tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the confucian scholar gentry?
The tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
What accounts for the relative weakness of the song empire?
the military was subordinated tothe civilian administrators of the scholar gentry.
Under the Song emperors, the scholar-gentry
continued its ascent over the aristocratic and Buddhist rivals.
What was the central purpose of the Taika reforms in Japan?
to remake the Japenese monarch into the absoutist chinese-style emperor.
The rise of the samurai in provincial Japenese society
reduced peasants to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.
The ashikaga shoguns who succeeded the Minamoto government a the Kamakura
drove the emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino and setup up a puppet emperor in his place.
One of the major reasons for the Chinese failure to assimilate the vietnamese was
the lack of impact of chinese cultural imports on the vietnamese peasantry
Which of the following lists gives the correct chronological sequence for the Korean dynasties?
Silla, Koryo, Mongol, Yi
What was the religous preference of the Korean elite?
At the time of the mongol invasion, Russia
was divided into numerous petty kingdoms centered on trading cities.
As a result of the Mongol invasion, Moscow
used its position as collector of tribute for the mongols and the seat of Russian Orthodoxy to emerge as the political leader of Russia.
What favoritve tactic onthe field of battle was frequently employed by chinggis khan's troops?
pretended flight to draw the enemy out followed by heavy calvary attacks on the flanks
In addition to the destruction of the Abbasid political capital at the baghdad and weakening of the muslim military strenght, what significant impact did the mongol conquest have on the islamic heartland?
the destruction of cities from central asia to the shores of the mediterranean devastated the focal points of Islamic civilization.
In order to reduce the power of the scholar gentry in China, the Yuan
refused to reinstate the examination system for the civil service.
The turkic expansion under timur-i Lang disrupted all of the following regions except
Why did the west begin the exploration of new trade routes around 1400?
Technological barriers that had been a problem previously were overcome
Which of the following features allowed italy to emerge as the center of the earl Renaissance?
Italy had closer contacts with the foreign scholars, particularly those in late Byzantium.
Which of the following is correctly associated with the renaissance?
greater interest in nature and things of this world.
Which of the following was a source of Western dynamism in the fourteenth and fiteenth centuries?
the growth of cities and urban economies
Which of the following statements concerning the cessation of state sponsored trade in china is most accurate?
In chinese terms, it was a breif trading flurry that was unusual, not its cessation.
What was the political state of the middle east following the fall of the Abbasid Empire and the withdrawal of the the mongols?
The emerging Ottoman empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate, plus the Byzantine corner.

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