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Geography Exam 4


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Refers to the seasonal reversal of wind and moisture flows in certain parts of the subtropics and lower-middle latitudes.
a belt of low pressure girdling the globe at the equator. It is formed, as its name indicates, by the convergence of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator.
The ITCZ or InterTropical Convergence Zone
a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India.
Deccan Plateau
refers to India's southwest coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and Kerala states between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea. The coast runs from south of Goa to Cape Comorin on India's southern tip.
Malabar Coast
run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau, and separate the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. aka Sahyadri mountains
Western Ghats
a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. These mountain ranges run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil
Eastern Ghats
a town in Meghalaya, India which is credited as being one of the world's wettest places. 451" per yr precipitation
The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges caused by orograhic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross the highlands.
Rain shadow effect
Mountain-induced precipitation, especially where air masses are forced to cross topographic barriers. Downward areas beyond such a mountain range experience the relative dryness known as the rain shadow effect.
orograhic precipitaion/barrier
The cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country.
A single, homogeneous culture without diversity or dissension.
The cultivation of many crops on a farm or in a region or country.
Diversity within culture.
slash-and-burn cultivation
A country's population, expressed as an average per unit area, without regard for its distribution or the limits of arable land.
arithmetic density / crude popualtion density
The number of people per unit of arable land.
physiologic density
70/growing rate = doubling time
law of 70
The successful recent development of higher-yields, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries.
Green Revolution
Multi-stage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; thi
Demographic transition model
is the principal river of Pakistan.
Indus River
is a major river in northern India.
Ganges River
is one of the major rivers of Asia. In Sanskrit, it means "son of Brahma".
Brahmaputra River
is a river that flows through the center of Myanmar (formerly "Burma").
Irrawaddy River
is one of the world's major rivers. It is the 12th-longest in the world, and the 10th-largest by volume
Mekong River
is a territory of high mountains surrounded by Pakistan, India, and along several miles in the north, Afghanistan.
Meaning: Land of five Rivers;
is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan.
is the capital city of Pakistan, located in the north-east of the country
belief in a single God
belief in multiple Gods
A large family of languages spoken especially in southern India and northern Sri Lanka that includes Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada.
include some 443 languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. Contemporary languages in this superfamily include Bengali, Engl
Indo_European languages
which is now Bangladesh, was the eastern half of Pakistan, created from the eastern half of the Bengal region of British India in 1947. The province was known as East Bengal from 1947 to 1955.
East Pakistan
an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of India; became independent of the United kingdom in 1948; aka Sri Lanka; tea, coconuts, and primarily Buddhist
Nepal's religion
Bhutan's religion
situated in the Himalaya, is the world's only Hindu kingdom. It is in South Asia, sharing borders with the People's Republic of China and India.
is a small, landlocked nation of South Asia, located in the Himalaya Mountains, sandwiched between India and the People's Republic of China
A set of islands grouped closely together, usually elongated into a chain.
Mountain chain consisting of sets of parallel ranges, especially the Andes in northwestern South America.
is the capital and the largest city of Indonesia, located on the northwest coast of the island of Java, at .
an island in Indonesia, known in English as "Java"
is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. It occupies the central and southern regions of the island.
(including the Kalimantan provinces of Indonesia, Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia, and Brunei) is the third largest island in the world; is considered part of the geographic region of Southeast Asia.
is the sixth largest island of the world and is the largest part of Indonesia.
is a special territory of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra.
are a group of islands in the middle-south part of the Malay Archipelago. They are split into the Indonesian provinces of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara, and the independent state of East Timor.
Lesser Sunda Islands
are a group of islands in the west part of the Malay Archipelago. Islands in the group include: Borneo, Java,
Sulawesi, and Sumatra.
The group is politically split between Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
Greater Sunda Islands
Java, Madura, Bali
Inner Islands of Indonesia
Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma)
Mainland Region of Southeast Asia
Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor, Brunei, Philippines
Insular Region of Southeast Asia
Siam =
Burma =
consisted of Cochin China, Tonkin, Annam (all of which now form Vietnam), Laos and Cambodia.
French Indo-China
A state whose territory is decidedly long and narrow in that its length is at least six times greater than its average width. Chile and Vietnam are classic examples.
elongated state
A politico-geographical term to describe a state that posesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center to any point on the boundary exhibits little variance. Ex. Poland and Cambodia
compact states
Territorial shape of a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of territory. Ex. Thailand
protruded state
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state. South Africa, which encloses Lesotho is an ex.
perforated states
A state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole. The individual parts may be isolated from each other by the land area of other states or international waters. Ex. U.S. and Indonesia
fragmented states
Political boundaries defined and delimited as straight lines or arcs.
Geometric boundaries
Political boundaries that coincide with prominent physical features in the natural landscape - such as rivers or the crest ridges of mountain ranges.
physiographic political boundaries
A political boundary that has ceased to function, but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape.
relict boundary
A political boundary emplaced by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape. Usually ignores pre-existing cultural-spatial patterns, such as the border that still divides North and South Korea.
superimposed boundary
A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area.
antecedent boundary
A politcal boundary that developed contemporaneoously with the evolution of the major elements of the cultural landscape through which it passes.
subsequent boundary
In political geography, the written legal description (in a treaty-like document) of a boundary between two countries or territories
In political geography, the translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty (the definition) into an official cartographic representation (map)
In political geography, the actual placing of a political boundary on the cultural landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.
What does "Nandi" refer to within Hindusim?
the bull - reminder of cow
What does "Garuda" refer to within Hindusim?
the eagle
What does lama mean and what is ones role?
unexcelled; takes on role of a mentor
Who are the Suddhas?
holy men who have chosen a life of ascenticism and yoga
What is the "Black Pagoda"?
What two types of people are drawn to Christianity within India?
low caste Hindus and tribal people
During what months of the year is the Mekong at its lowest levels?
November - May
What are 3 important functions of a "wat" in Laotian society?
center of prayer, education, communal activity, and healing
What is the most important crop produced in the Golden Triangle?
opium poppies
What do Cambodians use rice husks for?
fuel or feed
What term is used to describe Vietnam's Mekong River?
rice bowl
Name 2 ways the Indonesian people have harnesed their islands.
agriculture and water
What is the largest city within Indonesia?
What "modern" religions are practiced by the people of Indonesia?
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christianity
What is the dominant religion of the poeple of Indonesia?
How many islands constitute the national territory of Indonesia?

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