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History 101 Final Terms and Dates


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-1337 to 1453 -between England and France -lasted 116 years -French were victorious after many periods of peace and war
Hundred Years War
-led England to victory in Battle of Agincourt -was close to uniting France and England under his rule but his successors screwed thing up - ruled from ____ to _____
Henry V; 1413 1422
-major battle during the Hundred Years War -took place in ____ -English are victorious over French
Battle at Agincourt; 1415
-maid of Orleans claiming to be under the control of spiritual voices of saints -these voices led her to fight in battle against the English to crown the dauphin in Reims in _____
Joan of Arc; 1429
-claim to kingship -term referring to the successor to the throne of France
-dauphin who couldn\'t be crowned because the English held control of Reims -was eventually crowned king through the endeavors of Joan of Arc -legitimacy was questioned
Charles VII
-papacy moved here between _________ -Babylonians captured this papacy -long residence of popes here -papacy away from Rome
Avignon Papacy; 1309-1377
-also called Bubonic Plague -nature of the disease was debated -1/3 of the population was wiped out -came from China on a ship -led to economic decline
Black Death
-split within the Roman Catholic Church -new pope elected -french retreat to Avignon to elect their own pope -now 2 popes -Spaniard claims to be pope -conflict resolved at Council of Constance -all 3 resigned and new pope is elected
Great Western Schism (1378)
-fall of the Byzantine Empire -captured by the Ottoman Empire
Fall of Constantinople 1453
5 Events after 1300
1) Black Death 2) Hundred Years War 3) Avignon Papacy 4) Great Western Schism 5) Fall of Constantinople
-empire controlling much of the middle east beginning in the 14th century and keeping control up until WWI
Ottoman Emprire
-tenth and longest reining sultan of the Ottoman Empire -was well known for political and economic power -under his rule Ottoman fleets dominated the seas
Suleiman the Maginificent (1520-1566)
-battle won by Ottoman Turks in present day Hungary
Battle Mohacs
the most high, absolute, and perpetual power over the citizens and subjects in a commonwealth
-wrote the six books of the republic in ______ -developed term \"sovereignty\"
Jean Bodin; 1576
-representative body -king went to _____for money
-France\'s first Renaissance monarch -alliance with Suleiman the Great -promotes centralization of political authority - from the house of Valois
Francis I of France (1515-1547)
-first monarch of the Tudor dynasty -restored power and stability to England and War of Roses
Henry VII (1485-1509)
-was well known for his break with the catholic church and formation of the anglican church -had many wives -was originally married to Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII (1509 to 1547)
-king and queen of spain -brought aragon and Castille together -last muslim kingdom (Granada) was defeated under them
-Ferdinand and Isabella (1479-1516) Isabella dies in 1504
-king of Spain -also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V -heir to three different royal families (Hapsburg, Valois, Trastamara) -had a large span of land that he controlled
Charles I or V
-3 fold increase in prices across the board in the span of a century -high rate of inflation across Western Europe
Price Revolution
-humanist -wrote a book on the relief of the poor (On the Subvention of the Poor)
Juan Louis Vives (1526)
-port city Beligium that was a center of commerce and trans shipment -experienced strong urbanization
currency of florence
coin of the republic of Venice
-1st bank of Europe -created by _____ family in the 14th century
Medici Bank
-allowed you to exchange currencies in order to do business
bill of exchange
-going out and selling your goods -peasants buy/rent your goods and produce in the home -paid by how much they produce
domestic or putting out system
-first man to sail around the world from _______ -he really didn\'t sail around the world because he died in the Philippines -proved that the world was round -brought back spices and sold them for 10,000 times more than he paid for them
Ferdinand Magellan;1519-1522
-brother of Portuguese king -established research institute in early 15th century (1460)
Prince Henry the Navigator
1st person to sail directly from Europe to India in______
Vasco de Gama; 1498
-Indian port city controlled by Portuguese -established by Vasco de Gama
-Vasco de Gama pushes control into this city -in present day singapore
-fortified trading post -Portuguese were more interested in establishing these as opposed to colonization
-origninally wanted to sail to India but ended up in the Americas -thought Native Americans were Japanese -sparked Spanish interest in conquest
Christopher Columbus
-city established by Columbus in Hispaniola -oldest European city in America
Santo Domingo
-well known conquistador who conqueroed the Aztecs in Tenotichlan (present day Mexico City) in _____
Hernando Cortes; 1521
-dominate central america -spanish nobleman -wanted to export feudalism
Conquistadors 1520-1550
-conquistador who conquered the Incas in Central America
Francisco Pizarro (1533)
-pursuit of passage through or around America -non existent
Northwest Passage
-Italian explorer in service of the French crown -was the first to pass into New York through the Hudson River -also explored the coast of New England
Giovanni da Verrazzano
-Bolivian city -important silver mining city under Spanish Colonial rule
-worked for improvement in treatment of Native Americans -wanted to developed the \"ideal\" Indian community - that didn\'t work out so well so he returned to Spain to lobby for Native American rights until his death -period in which he attempted to m
Bartolomeo de las Casas; 1516-1522
royal official who runs a country or province in the name of and as a representative of a monarch
vice royalty
-main sites of Spanish government in the New World
Mexico City and Lima
-Italian poet and scholar -"father of humanism" -personally discovered a collection of Cicero's letters previously unknown in _____
Petrarch; 1345
-phrase used to capture the spirit of the Renaissance
\"the discovery of man and the world\"
-principle intellectual course of the Renaissance
3 characteristics of humanism
1) enthusiastic scholarly study 2) educational humanism 3) greater historical consciousness
-\"Prince of Humanists\" -most famous work \"Praise of Folly\" in _____ -\"crowning glory for Christian Humanists\"
Erasmus of Robberdam; 1512
-invented moveable type -also developed the printing press in _______
Johannes Gutenberg;1439
-vesion of the vulgate printed by Gutenberg
Gutenberg Bible
-means cradle -refers to the infancy stage of printing
-style of art popular during the early Renaissance -reigning style up until the 14th century -more depth to figures, more 3D -more exciting natural backgrounds -halo of remnant of gold backgrounds of older style
-Italian painter and architect from Florence -considered to be first in a line of great artists contributing to the Italian Renaissance
Giotto di Bordone
-Florintine painter -very naturalistic in style -one of the first to use a scientific perspective in his paintings
-wasn\'t very popular -unnatural aspects of the body e.g. freakishly long arms and necks -Florentine painter
Sandro Botticelli (1440-1510)
-painting depicting the cycle of life of Saint Peter -describes a scene from the Gospel of Matthew -considered to be Masaccio\'s greatest work
\"The Tribute Money\"
-painting of spring by Botticelli -typical in Renaissance style
\"Primavera\" (1482)
-one of the 3 most well known artists of the Renaissance - painted the ceiling of the Sistine chapel in ______ -sculptor as well
Michaelangelo (1475-1564); 1508-1512
-painted by Rafael for the popes private quarters -meant to bring out harmony between the ancient classical world and the Christian Renaissance World -Plato and Aristotle at center
"School of Athens" (1510)
-was 1 of the 3 most well known artist of the Renaissance -loves those reds
Raphael (1483 to 1520)
-branch of Christianity developed by Martin Luther
-also referred to as \"Reformed\" -began in Geneva Switzerland by John Calvin -stressed the absolute sovereignty of God -had 3 other forms -
-term used to describe French Calvinists
French Huguenots
branch of Calvinism referring to the Scottish Protestants
-another branch of Calvinism that didn\'t appear on the scene until after 1560 -wanted to \"purify\" the Anglican Church -spread into the Netherlands and eventually to America
-Church of England -created by Henry VIII in his break from the Catholic Church -called Episcopalians in America
Anglican Church
-\"second baptism\" -separated themselves from politics and the state
-also referred to as the Catholic Reform -Catholics say they were already in the process of reforming but the Reformation interrupted this process -Ecumenical Movement (attempt to unite all Christians)
Counter Reformation
-16th century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church -major reform council embodying counter reformation ideals
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
-catholic religious order called the Society of Jesus -set strong examples of Catholic renewal during the Counter Reformation -one of the most effective new Catholic orders during the Counter Reformation
-destruction of the cosmos, the Greek notion for the universe -considerations based on its replacement by vision of the world as bodies or particles in motion moving through space according to mathematical laws
Scientific Revolution (1543 - 1687)
-developed the Greek vision of the universe (4th century bce) geocentric universe with earth in middle and planets revolving around the earth division of terrestrial and celestial spheres
-believed that the deferent revolves in a perfect circle around the earth, while the epicycle revolves around the deferent
Ptolemy (2nd century ad)
-believed that the sun should be placed in the center of the universe -earth rotates on its axis daily and revolves around the sun annually
Coppernicus (1473-1543)
-developed three laws of planetary motion
Johannes Keplar
-first person to look at the earth through the telescope -advocates Capernicanism -law of inertia -law of falling bodies \"the starry messenger\" -1610
Galileo 1564- 1642
-series of events concerning the conflict between Galileo and the Catholic Church concerning Galileo\'s support of Copernican ideas
Galileo affair
-published \"Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy\" (1687) -put everything together, Keplar\'s Laws of Planetary Motion, Galileo\'s laws of terrestrial motion and the universal laws of gravity
Issac Newton
- council held from _____ to ______ -this council settled the Great Western Schism by forcing the 3 popes to resign and elected a new one
Council of Constance; 1414-1418

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