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HIST 106 Exam 2


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Sixteenth Amendment
income tax
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
factory fire in manufacturing facility, 146 dead
The Social Gospel
1870s: Churches preach further attention to city problems and poverty, called for more charity and assistance to the poor
The Muckrackers
Journalists who found and exposed the corruption in society without providing solutions
Australian Ballot
weakened the ability of landlords, businesses, and parties to pressure voters
Seventeenth Amendments
voters now directly elect senators instead of legislatures doing so
Teddy Roosevelt
see notes
created national parks, forests, mineral lands, monuments, and wild-life refuges
William Howard Taft
republican from Ohio, beat out Bryan for pres. in 1908, pushed trust-busting, initiated the 16th Amendment
New Nationalism
called for by Teddy Roosevelt, extended power of government over the corporations
The Bull Moose Party
Progressive party formed by Teddy Roosevelt due to split in the Republican party
Woodrow Wilson
see notes
The New Freedom
Wilson wanted to increase commercial freedom and competition by breaking up trusts in favor of small business
Federal Trade Commission
advanced the New Freedom by increasing governmental power to break up trusts
William H. Seward
Secretary of State who annexed Alaska in 1867
Seward's Folly
Americans were skeptical of William Seward's purchase of Alaska for $7.2 million (2 cents an acre) in 1867
Pan American Union
created during the First International American Conference in 1889 by James Blaine in hopes to create a customs/trade union with Latin America
see notes
Social Darwinism
theory that argued that US had right to stomp inferior people and take their possessions at will
Alfred Thayer Mahan
believed naval power was the greatest power, and in the age of steam, meant that you needed colonies for refueling, repair, etc.
Yellow Press
cheap newspapers that focused on scandal, oddities, gossip, and screaming jingoism.(name 'yellow press' came from an early newspaper cartoons)
Teller Amendment
US declared war to liberate Cuba, declaring in this document that it had no intention of annexing Cuba
Platt Amendment
gave US control of foreign and economic policy in Cuba and the right to intervene military
The Open Door
European powers forced China to give trade concessions and privileges to them. US favored open trade with China but resisted Europeans trying to extort special privileges.
Panama Canal
under construction from 1904-1914, initiated by Teddy Roosevelt
Roosevelt Corollary
1904, to the Monroe Doctrine, US assumed responsibility for policing the Western Hemisphere to prevent interventions from Europe
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft and Wilson protected US business interest abroad in Asia and the Caribbean. Substitute money power for bullets and force. Bullets and force ended up backing up the money.
Henry Cabot Lodge
US Ambassador that helped to organize a Madero by military chief, Victoriano Huerta
Otto von Bismark
Prime Minister of Germany (1970-1900), tried to build a system of alliances that would prevent large scale war in Europe impossible
Franz Ferdinand
Heir to Austro-Hungarian empire, assassinated during a tour of Bosnia-Herzegovina by a member of the Black Hand in June 1914
Trench Warfare
system of forts and trenches that developed after the first German offensive failed
the Lusitania
Germans sank this ship in May 1915 after warning civilians to stay off. 1198 civilians died.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany resumed submarine attacks after German civilians were dying due to blockades
Zimmerman Telegram
In March 1917, US sent telegram from Germany to Mexico asking for Mexican aid in the war. Promised them the lands the US had taken from them in the Mexican War.
Espionage Act
Provided heavy fines and up to 20 years in prison for 'obstructing the war effort' (could be interpreted very broadly)
Selective Service Act of 1917
issues by Wilson, drafted 3 million of 25 million available inductees into World war I
General John "Blackjack" Pershing
led the first few thousand men available into France in June 1917
The Bolsheviks
faction of Russian Communists that took over in the second revolution led by Lenin
The Red Scare
set off by a bomb scare in 1919, made the term "socialist" a poison pill in the US
where a handful of companies control an industry instead of just one
Warren G. Harding
see notes
Teapot Dome Scandal
set up by Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall. Leased petroleum reserves on public lands set aside for conservation in return for cash, bonds, and cattle.
Calvin Coolidge
1923-1928, did little after loss of his son, endorsed growth of big business and planned to leave them to make money
The Jazz Age
the maturation of cultural trends beginning in the 1910s, reflected Post-war 'return to normalcy' and the idea that 'the business of America is Business'
Harlem Renaissance
black culture flourished in cities, Harlem became cultural capital of northern black communities, poetry and music were the heart, the depression crushed it
shanty towns built by homeless men during the Great Depression
Bonus Army
march on Washington in 1932 where WWI veterans asked for their bonus pay that Congress pledged to give them in 1945
Herbert Hoover
former mining engineer, headed relief efforts during WWI, Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge, wanted to promote international free trade, won the election of 1928
arose to supply tainted liquor in every city and major town
triumph of evangelicals and women, epic failure, drove drinking underground and gave it a forbidden allure
National Origins Act of 1924
restricted immigration quotas to 2% of the size of each national origin as measure in the 1890 census, trumpeted a goal of preserving 'racial purity'
highly popular sport in the 20s and 30s, semi-integrated
Marcus Garvey
from Jamaica, one of the leaders of the Pan-Africanism (hoped to create a free state for blacks in Africa), created the Universal Negro Improvement Association, created newspaper THE NEGRO WORLD, created the Black Star Line, deported back to Jamaica
A. Phillip Randolph
writer for THE MESSENGER in Harlem, urged blacks to vote for socialists and to join unions, founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, helped organize March on Washington in 1963
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
see notes
Federal Bank Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
created by the Federal Bank Deposit Insurance Act, guaranteed all bank deposits up to $5000 and expanded the authority and membership of the Federal Reserve System
Works Progress Administration
created summer 1935, built roads and bridges, spread cultural projects, and generally tried to pump money into the economy to build it up
Huey P. Long
Governor of Louisiana, used oil taxes to fund social services, hoped to found a coalition of the poor, black and white alike, "Share our Wealth"
Father Charles Coughlin
The Radio Priest, supported FDR at first but then turned against him, began to focus o n anti-semitism
Congress of Industrial Organizations
fumblings of the American Federation of Labor led to the rise of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, focused on unskilled workers and unionizing entire industries, backed interracial unions

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