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Appleby 10 Terms


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Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette; the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive; allowing Coolidge to win.
Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher; his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement; 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms; he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon
1) American financier 2) appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover 3) government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially
McNary-Haugen Bill
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. 2) government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoed twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance; he was influenced by jazz music.
Election of 1920
Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy"
Bruce Barton; The Man Nobody Knows; 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control 2) widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Kellogg-Briand Pact; 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War;" it made war illegal as a tool of national policy; allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Washington Disarmament Conference; 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Teapot Dome
1929 2) The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills 3) taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior; which leased the land to oil companies 4) Several Cabinet members received payments as bribes. 5) Due to the investigation; Daugherty; Denky; and Fall were forced to resign.
Ernest Hemingway
Writer 2) Sun Also Rises; A Farewell to Arms 3) Lost generation author and ex patriot
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Brief depression; 1920-1921
Two years after WW I; prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926); Charlie Chaplin
Valentino; a romantic leading man; was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
Henry Ford; the Model T; Alfred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car; which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan; an American industrialist; helped found project.
Margaret Sanger
1921 - founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.
Election of 1920: candidates; issues; vice-presidential candidates
Republican; Warren G. Harding; with V.P. running mate Coolidge; beat Democrat; Governor James Cox; with V.P. running mate; FDR. The issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
The Lost Generation
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway; "You are all a lost generation;" referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Harry Daugherty
Harding administration 2) Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization; the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks; Jews and It experienced phenomenal Catholics in US society. growth in the 1920's; especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members; but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
Versailles Conference; Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28; 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Henry L. Mencken
writer and editor 2) He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class. 3) reported from Scopes Trial
New Woman; Flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair; and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974); Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane; the Spirit of St. Louis; across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships; it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan; and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain; U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
What Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
KDKA; Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Charles Forbes
Harding administration 2) served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts 3) took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S.; including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement; a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Babe Ruth; Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros; R. set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and D. was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Scopes trial; Clarence Darrow; William Jennings Bryan
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton; Tennessee school teacher; John Scopes; for violation of the Butler Act; a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate; William Jennings Bryan; prosecuted the case; and the famous criminal attorney; Clarence Darrow; defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100; but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles; Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S.; it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations; supported by several presidents.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Writer 2) Great Gatsby 3) critiqued money and wealth
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Election of 1928: candidates; personalities; backgrounds
Herbert Hoover; the Republican; was a Quaker from Iowa; orphaned at 10; who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith; the Democrat; was a Catholic from New York; of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921; its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget; improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
Dawes Plan; Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924; U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy; Bobby Franks; in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow; they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses; they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
T.S. Elliot
Poet 2) "The Wasteland" 3) Modernist writer who displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist; 20th century poetry.
Immigration Acts; 1921; 1924; Quota System 1921
First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357;800; which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150;000 per year.
Five Powers Treaty; Four Powers Treaty; Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference; U.S.; Great Britain; Japan; France; and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S.; Japan; Britain; and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
Harlem Renaissance; Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems; stories; essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers; musicians; and intellectuals.
Senator George Norris (1861-1944); Muscle Shoals
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority; a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S.; like Appalachia.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940); Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism;" and financial independence for Blacks; he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director; he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.

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