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US History Final Review

Terms

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Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie Steel. MONOPOLY. Partnered with Rockefeller. Was a steel tycoon. Used Vertical and Horizontal integration. Also, a great philanthropist.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
Hawaii
>Kalakaua is king in 1886 & tries to minimize US influence >400 Americans organize to overthrow him and force him to sign Bayonet Constitution (giving US the rights to Pearl Harbor) >1891 his sister succeeds him & tries to return power to the people >Annexation of Hawaii
Nationalism
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Bull Market
When the stock market is rising or expected to rise
Teddy Roosevelt
26th President (1901-1909) Republican, Harvard Grad, youngest to be president (after McKinley died), filed anti-trust suits
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
1866 - large labor union headed by Samuel Gompers, used strikes to raise wages
Why didn't the US participate in the League of Nations
They agreed with everything except for article 10. Article 10 states that if any member went to war, the others would fight for it also. Wilson thought that it defeated to point of the League of Nations
Rough Riders
volunteer cavalry led by Wood and Roosevelt
Liberty Bonds
A special type of war bond to help support the Allied forces
Mass transit
moved larger amounts of people at a time. Created more job opportunities for suburbs. Used street cars, etc.
Settlement Houses
community centers providing help to mostly foreign immigrants in slum neighborhoods
League of Nations
Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Consisted of a permanent administrative staff,an assembly, and a council. The council was intended to have five members; France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the US. Member nations were to try to resolve disputes peacefully. If negotiations failed, they were to observe a waiting period before they went to war. It was established in 1920 without the US.
Jazz
Originated among African Americans in the south, esp. New Orleans (Big Bands popularized jazz for dancing)
Herbert Hoover
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
Spanish American War
U.S. helped Cuba gain freedom from Spain -> Causes: de Lome letter is intercepted and published, it insults McKinley; U.S.S. Maine explodes in Cuban port, killing 260
Babe Ruth
Famous baseball player for the Yankees
Zimmermann Note
a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
Henry Bessemer
Bessemer Process (steel)
Prohibition
1920 - 1933; the ban of alcohol for any purpose other than medical
Trench warfare
fighting in ditches dug in the ground. It was how each side in WW1 fought
Harlem Renaissance
Period of artistic development of african american writers, artists, actors, and musicians in the 1920s
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's idea of using economic influence rather than force to protect US
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Bear Market
When the stock market is falling or expected to fall
NAACP
(1906) North American Association of Colored People; founded by W.E.B. Dubois & Jane Addams
Goals of Progressivism
(1) protect social welfare (2) create economic reform (3) promote moral improvement (4) fostering efficiency
Flappers
The stylish women of the 1920's. Shorter cut skirts and hair. Black hair. Took a bigger role is society; the workplace, politics, etc.
Open Door Policy
China's ports were open to every country at all times
Laissez faire economics
Non interference with the affairs of others
Fundamentalism
An exact translation of the Bible was taken and acted upon. Led religious revivals. Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson were some popular names at the time
Spark of WW1
When the Serbians assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir the the Austria-Hungary throne
4 main causes of the Great Depression
Tariffs and war debt policies, over production of goods, global economic downturn, the availability of easy credit.
Skyscrapers
New building techniques (city's grew up and out)
Breadlines
Many men had to stand in breadlines, similar to soup kitchens, in order to provide food to their family.
Railroads
Made of steel. Made local transit reliable and westward expansion possible for business and people. Before the civil war there was only about 30,000 miles of laid track, by 1890 the figure was nearly 6 times that.
Assembly Line
A new way of working. Unskilled workers could be hired and paid for less.
Blacklists
lists of people not to hire, usually people associated with unions or rebels
Sherman Anti-trust act
MAde it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or other countries
Mexican Revolution
>Diaz was president for more than 30 years >Madero wins over Diaz in 1910 election (democrat) >Huerta seizes control in 1913, killing Madero >Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta as a leader
Voting
Women gain the right to vote in 1919
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and later the US
Great Migration
200,000 to 550,000 African American's moved northward from 1915-1930. Enjoyed the better standard of living, still there was racial tension and violence.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Philanthropist
someone who donates time, money, or resources
George Pullman
Invented the sleeping car
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's corollary to Monroe Doctrine. Claimed the US had the right to interfere with other countries in the western hemisphere
Thomas Edison
Perfected the incandescent light bulb
Tenements
multi-family urban dwelling - crowded, unsanitary
The Great Upheaval
A year of many strikes over labor issues
Russian Revolution
Two revolutions of 1917 took Russia out of WW1
Cuba
sold to US in the Treaty of Paris (along with the Philippines)
Shanty towns
Also known as Hoovervilles. Those with no home or work would create small town like areas of trash, boxes, boards, etc. Many were later burned out by the police force.
Henry Ford
created the 8 hour work day, and raised wages to 5$/day. Made his cars affordable for almost every family at the time
Treaty of Versailles
Terms: Germany's colonies and Turkey were divided among the Allied Nations, The mandate system which required new colonial leaders to report their administration to the League of Nations, Created new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, France reclaimed Alsace-Corraine and Germany lost its colonies
Ku Klux Klan
Grew to 4.5 million in the early 1920's. a group against African Americans. Burned crosses, killed influential blacks, and whites supporting the blacks.
Forms of Entertainment
Commercial Radio (by 1929 more than 800 stations reached more than 10 million homes), Nickelodeons ($.05 / sound added to movies), Dancing, Drinking, Speakeasies, Jazz
Prohibition
the ban of alcohol. In the 1920's however, smuggling was made into a job. Speakeasies arose. (underground clubs)
Unions
Low wages and unsafe working conditions cause workers to revolt and group together. (Ex. American Railway Union, Child Labor Movement, Women Labor Movement, Industrial Workers of the World, Social Gospel Movement)
Ethnocentrism
the belief that your culture is superior or correct above others
Steel
The Bessemer Steel Process was the new method to produce more than 90% of the nations steel. First Monopoly is steel was made by Andrew Carnegie
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Knights of Labor
1969 - labor union led by Uriah Stephens; open to all laborers, regardless of race, gender, skill... etc; "an injury to one is a concern to all."
Planned Obsolescence
Products are designed to be obsolete (think: ipods)
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
Yellow Dog Contracts
contracts employees signed, giving them low wages and conditions like not joining unions
Farmers
The Dust Bowl destroyed most Western farms. Much of the land was taken over for machine manufactured farming. Many farmers and families moved farther west to California during the 1930's.
Challenges to Neutrality
British blockade, Germany establishing a war zone around Great Britain, the sinking of the Lusitania, U-boat warfare
Dough Boys
slang for American soldiers (because of their uniforms)
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
Rugged Individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
Charles Lindbergh
Pilot, First to fly nonstop solo from New York to Paris (had a Ticker-tape parade)
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - Chinese gang rebels against foreigners in China
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)

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