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Physical Anthropology - ANT 301


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The earliest discoveries of H. erectus were in the _______ century.
The suggested taxonomic name Pithecanthropus are for the ___________ remains
The suggested taxonomic name Sinanthropusare for the ___________ remains
northern Chinese
Discoveries in the last few decades have establish well-dated finds of H. erectus in East Africa chronometrically dated as old as _____
1.8 m.y.a.
There is now growing evidence for an early dispersal of hominids outside of Africa, well before ____
1 m.y.a.
Current interpretations view the first hominid dispersal out of Africa as occurring between ___ and ___ m.y.a.
1.5, 2
The most conclusive evidence form Israel is archaeological, including stone tools dated ____ m.y.a.
1.4 to 1.3
Remains in Spain (1994) at Gran Dolina are dated at ______
780,000 y.a.
Whether any of the early European hominids belong within the species Homo erectus still _______
is uncertain.
The long temporal span of H. erectus begins very early in the _______, and extends fairly late into that epoch.
The Pleistocene (aka Ice Age / Age of Glaciers) runs from ______ to ______.
1.8 m.y.a.
10,000 y.a.
Homo erectis differs from early Homo and Homo sapiens in the following ways:
Cranial size, cranial shape, body size, dentition (teeth)
U. erectus was ______ in size than earlier hominids
Found at Nariokotome (Lake Turkana, Kenya): ______
Nearly complete H. erectus skeleton in 1984
Cranium of H. erectus has a highly distinctive shape, with thick ______ ______ and large _________ in the front of the skull and a projecting _____ ____ at the rear.
cranial bone, browridges, nuchal torus
Nuchal torus:
A prujection of bone in the back of teh cranium where neck muscles attach, used to hold up the head. The nuchal torus is a distinctive feature of H. erectus.
The nuchal torus is a distinctive feature of _________.
H. erectus.
Morphology and variation in H. erectus: (six features)
Low forehead, thick cranial bone, browridge (supraorbital torus), Nuchal torus, large posterior teeth, broad at base (maximum width BELOW the ear opening.
The teeth of H. erectus are _______ than early Homo, and _____ than H. sapiens.
smaller, larger
New dates from two sites in Java indicate that
the Java finds are much more recent than the East African finds.
Currently, it is believed that the first hominids left Africa:
between 1.5 and 2 m.y.a.
The Pleistocene lasted
more than 1.75 m.y.
Compared to earlier members of the genus Homo, Homo erectus was
larger overall
A physical characteristic distinct to Homo erectus that distinguishes it from other hominids is
the cranial breadth is below the ear
Shovel-shaped incisors are
found among Chinese Homo erectus specimens,
found in some modern populations,
found on the Nariokotome specimen.
Eugene Dubois was the first scientist to
design a research plan to take him out of the lab and into the field.
With regard to his analysis of the skullcap from Java, Eugene Dubois was
correct in identifying it as a previously undescribed species
If the date range of 50,000-25,000 from Java is confirmed, it would show that Homo erectus
lived contemporaneously with Homo sapiens.
Was the skull uncovered in 1929 and cleaned by Davidson Black small or large?
It was relatively large.
The cultural remains at Zhoukoudian Cave
consist of over 100,000 artifacts.
It appears that Homo erectus exploited
meat, fruit, eggs and seeds
Zhoukoudian Cave was inhabited intermittently for
almost 250,000 years.
Of the fossil remains at Zhoukoudian,
40% belonged to individuals under 14 years old.
Which advanced characteristics were found on the cranium from the 1980 Hexian site in China which dates to 250,000 y.a.?
reduced postorbital constriction

temporal characteristics

occipital characteristics
OH9 found in 1960 by Louis Leakey at Olduvai is dated at
1.4 m.y.a.
WT 15,000 from Nariokotome, Kenya is the most ________ Homo erectus skeleton ever found.
If the Nariokotome find had survived to adulthood he would have been over _____ tall.
The Acheulian stone biface was a standard tool for Homo erectus for over a million years and was found in parts of _______.
The Ceprano cranium found in Central Italy is the best evidence of Homo erectus in Europe. T/F
African erectus finds show little sexual dimorphism.
In 1941, during World War II, the Homo erectus fossils from Beijing, China were to be taken to the United States by the U.S. Marine Corp. for safekeeping. They disappeared and have never been found T/F
It is generally accepted that Homo erectus had language capabilities. T/F
At Zhoukoudian, the majority of the fossils were in the 40-50 year range, indicating a relatively long life span for Homo erectus in this area. T/F
Scientists have serious doubts about whether Homo erectus controlled fire. T/F
Discoveries in Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia have pushed back the time frame for hominids in Europe. T/F
Homo ergaster is the taxonomic name suggested by some scientists for Asian erectus finds. T/F
F (H. ergaster was for Africans)
For it's 1.5 million years of existence, Homo erectus had stable physical and cultural characteristics. T/F
Hominid finds in Dmanisi and Boxgrove have pushed back the antiquity of hominids in
The most obvious feature of Homo erectus that differs from both early Homo and Homo sapiens is _____ size.
During Homo erectus times and through the era of archaic Homo sapiens we see a dramatic increase in __________.
Eugene Dubois was correct in identifying _______ as the ancestor of Homo sapiens.
H. erectus
The source of the ___________ used by the Chinese as medicine and aphrodisiacs were mammal bones from the Zhoukoudian site
"dragon bones"
The tools found at Zhoukoudian from the Final Stage (300-000-230,000 y.a.) were ______ and the materials were of ______ quality.
small, better
More work has been done at ________ than any other Chinese site
East Lake Turkana in northern Kenya has been a virtual gold mine for __________, early Homo and _______ fossil remains.
Homo erectus
At a quarry north of Sale in Morocco, a find there has features that suggest it is Homo sapiens, but the date of _________. and an estimated cranial capacity of ______ throw doubt on the interpretation.
900 cm3
At Dmanisi, no _______ remains have been found.

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