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Gov.2302 Chapter 16


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When did Iraq withdraw its troops from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm?
Feb. 27, 1991
Who announced the beginning of a "New World Order" at the close of Operation Desert Storm?
Bush I
What is certain about NATO?
It keeps getting bigger>
Name the body that NATO approved in shich old enemies sit together in areas such as counter-terrorism, ballistic missile defense, peacekeeping, arms proliferation, and emergency planning:
Russia-NATO Council
Who led the forces in Vietnam that defeated French colonial forces in 1954?
Ho Chi Minh
True or False
Ho Chi Minh was from South Vietnam
False. His forces were from North Vietnam
What is the name of the resolution pased by Congress that granted Pres. Johnson authority to pursue the war in Vietnam, supposedly based on a naval attack by North Vietnamese ships?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Name the two US ships supposedly engaged in the Gulf of Tonkin episode?
The Maddox and the C. Turner Joy
When was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed?
Aug. 1964
By what year had US forces increased from 75,000 to 125,000 in Vietnam?
In what year did the US withdraw from Vietnam?
How many fatalities did the US suffer from the Vietnam War?
What is the name for the term that is an attempt to relax the tensions between the US and the Soviet Union through limited cooperation?
Name the president who initiated "detente" between the US and the USSR
Where did the US choose to build its missile defense system?
North Dakota
Describe SALT
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty limited various classes nuclear weapons
When was SALT I signed?
Name the 2 superpower leaders who signed SALT
Nixon and Brezhniv
When did detente end?
When Reagan announced in 1983 the "star wars" initiative
Describe Reagan's sta:r wars intitiative
Strategic Defvense Initiative, was to be a laser based defense.
What events grounded the SDI?
US's trillion dollar national debt and the bankrupted USSR
True or False
Secy of Defense Don Rumsfield shut down the missile defense site in North Dakota in 1976?
True or False
Putin and Bush signed a treaty to reduce the US and the USSR's arsenal of nuclear warheads from 6,000 to 2,200 by 2012.
True or False
Bush and Putin signed a treaty to reduce the US and USSR's nuclear arms arsenals from 60,000 to 22,000 by 2012.
False. OFF by 1 digit.
It is to be reduced from 6,000 to 2,200.
When did the Soviet Union cease to exist?
When did the Cold War end?
When the Soviet Union ceased to exist
Which president referred to rogue countries as "predators of the 21st century" who sought to build their own arsenals of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the missiles to deliver them.
Pres. Clinton
T or F
Since the end of WWII, US foreign policy has been an aggressive balancing act between American democratic ideals and US military and economic interests.
False. It was a cautios balancing act.
Describe the Bush Doctrine
while the US will constantly strive to enlist the support of the international community, it will not heistate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise its right of self-defense by acting pre-emptively against such terrorists.
When did Irag invade Kuwait leading the First Gulf War?
Aug. 2, 1990
What lead to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait?
economic disputes about oil production and pricing
Name the UN resolution under which Iraq was faced economic sanctions and a naval blockade for invading Kuwait
Resolution 660
When did Desert Shield intitiate?
Aug 7 1990.
When did Operation Desert Storm begin to free Kuwait?
January 17, 1991
When was Kuwait's sovereignty restored?
Feb. 26, 1991
What did the Soviet Union create to counter the US's creation of NATO?
Warsaw Pact
True or False
The war in Korea (1950) prved to be a major test of containment between the US and the Soviet Union
False. It was a test between the US and China
What communist revolution occurred at the end of the 50's?
Cuban Revolution
When did the nuclear age begin?
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 ending the war with Japan
What began the superpowers' arms race?
In September 1949 with the explosion of a Soviet-made atomic device
When did the most dangerous nuclear confrontation of the Cold War occur?
Name the leaders of the US and USSR during the Cuban Missile crisis of 1962
Kennedy and Kruschav
What was the logic behind the USSR's building of missile bases in Cuba?
The US's building of missile bases in Turkey pointed at the USSR
When was a limited test ban treaty negotiated between the US and the USSR?
What is the term for a small portion of the federal budget that goes to nonmiliatry aid abroad, initailly to mitigate against Soviet expansion?
federal aide
What initiative remains the the US's foremost experiment in fusing the aims of foreign policy with the resources of government and the initiative and expertise of private individuals?
Peace Corps
What program originally intiated during the Eisenhower admin. focusing on aid to Latin America?
Alliance for Progress
Describe the Inter-American Development Bank
In exchange for $20 billion dollars over 10 years, participating Latin American players such as Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico would liberalize their tax, land distribution, and social policies
True or False
The Alliance for Progress succeeded?
False. By 1966 it had all but disappeared.
What does ABM stand for?
Antiballistic Missile Treaty
When did the ABM get signed?
Name the 2 superpower leaders who signed the ABM?
Nixon and Brezhniv
True or False
The ABM is a relatively short treaty consisting of 16 articles that fit, single-spaced onto 5 sheets of paper.
True or False
The ABM provides that either party, with 6 months notice, could withdraw from the treaty?
True or False
Art. I of the ABM prhibits the 2 nations from putting in place systems capable of defending their entire territoriesfromn intercontinental ballistic missile attacks?
True or False
The ABM permits the development, testing, or deployment of sea-, air-, space- or mobile land-based antiballistic missile systems.
False. It prohibits it.
Where did the Soviet Union choose to build an antimissile system?
Around Moscow?
How did the US lose credibility in Latin America during the Bush II admin.?
In 2002, when the US Bush admin. denied that there had been a military coup in Ven. when there was an overthrow of Venezuala's elected Pres. Chavez
True or False
The NSC 68 recommended against negotiation with the Kremlin and advocated the dev. of a more powerful nuclear arsenal, rapid expansion of conventional miliarty resources and the full mobilzation of American society within a government-
Under what program did the US pour billions dollars in economic aid into
Europe following the WW II?
Marshall Plan
What act of aggression did US policy makers use to persuade the public that the horrors of Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare and the impossibily of containing the war within Europe?
The sinking of the Lusitania
List the 3 requirements a stable citizenry requires:
1. protection of recognized national boundaries;
2. a strong economy;
3. a stable and orderly society
What is the term for the protection of those interests deemed necessary for the country's safety?
national security
When did the Soviet Union detonate their 1st atom bomb?
When was a communist state created in China?
What is the name of the 1st leader of the new communist state of China?
Mao Zedong
When did the NSC draft the blueprint for what is now known as the "Cold War"?
What was the term for the bipolar struggle between the US and USSR that nbegan in the 1950's and ended in the 1990's?
Cold War
What was the name of the document that the NSC developed that oulined a sweeping mobilization of American economic and human resources in the effort to contain Soviet communism?
National Security Council Paper 68
or NSC 68
What is the term for the fundamental divsion of economic and miliatry power between the poles of Western capitalism and Eastern communism?
What did the Soviet Union along with its Eastern European allies create in 1955?
The Warsaw Pact
What is the term for the actions taken by the US gov on behalf of its national interests abroad to ensure the security and well-being of Americans and the strength and competiveness of the US economy?
Foregn Policy
When did the US begin to position itself as a player of global rather than regional stature?
1. start of WWI in 1914 and
2. collapse of the Russian monarchy in 1917
What 2 agencies were created by the National Security Act of 1947?
1. CIA, and
2. National Security Council (NSC)
What is the name of term that describes the view in which the US sphere of influence has expanded beyond the western hemisphere to include virtually every corner of the globe where US interests might be affrected?
How many countries initally comprise NATO?
Describe what the term "iron curtain" refers to:
Soviet forces controlled all of Eastern Europe, installing virtual puppet regimes of military might and political resolve.
Describe the "Truman Doctrine"
the intention to assist free, democratic nations to beat back the threat of totalitarianism
What is the term coined in 1946 by George Kennan, who believed that Soviet aggression must be "contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counterforce by the US?
When was the UN created?
Describe American exceptionalism:
The concept that the US is exceptional and unique from the world and by the spread of democracy more and more people are achieving the basic freedoms Americans enjoy.
Name the 3 countries considered to be the "Axis of Evil" according BushhII
1. Iran
2. Iraq
3. North Korea
Name the 5 core goals of American foreign relations:
1. Survival and Independence
2. Territorial integrity and acquisition of new territory
3. Military security
4. Economic security
5. Democratic values and ideals
List the 5 factors of military security:
1. weaponry
2. capabilities and intentions of other nations
3. advantages and disadvantages of geography
4. resources
5. demographic trends
What is the national purpose of the US's role in world affairs?
promotion of democratic values
What is the pattern in which the US fosters economic relations abroad without committing to strategic alliances that might draw the country into a war?
When was the Monroe Doctrine introduced?
Pres. James Monroe in Dec. 1823, in his State of the Union address
T or F
The Monroe Doctrine reinforces the country's isolationism?
What did the Monroe Doctrine proclaim?
1. North and South American continents were the US's sphere of influence and out of bounds for European influence
2. US agreed not to become involved in European affairs
Vigorous territorial expansion within the US continental land mass was greatly influenced by what policy?
Monroe Doctrine
Name the philosophy under which US foreign policy makers inthe first half of the 19th century involked a divine guidance to take control of what is now the continental US?
Manifest Destiny
When did the US go to war against Spain?
During the Spanish-American war what territories were seized by the US?
1. Phillipines, and
2. Puerto Rico
In what year did the US annex the Hawiian Islands?
Under what president's leadership did the US emerge as the "policeman of the Western Hemisphere"?
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt
List 3 important initiatives that Pres. T. Roosevelt was responsible for?
1. Panama Canal
2. mediated the Russo-Japanese War
3. accelerated the development of the US Navy.
How many casualties did the US suffer during WWI?
Why did the US policy makers feel that the sinking of the Lusitania had relevance?
It had US citizens
What US president's efforts to "outlaw" aggressive actions of nations lead to the founding of the League of Nations?
Pres. Woodrow Wilson
T or F
Wilson was unable to persuade the US Senate to join the League of Nations.
Following the end of WWI, describe the mood of the country regarding foreign policy:
True or False
Lenin's real name is Vladimir Ulaynov
True or False
Vladimir Ulyanov led the Bolsheviks in Russia to seize control?
What does the USSR stand for
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
When was the USSR formed?
T or F
Pres. Wilson dispatched 100,000 Americans to aid other Allied troops in the disruption of the Soviet revolutionary regime.
False. It was 10,000 Americans he sent.
What year did Hitler invade Poland?
T or F
Germany and the USSR had a non-aggression pact prior to 1939 assuring that neither country would invade Poland.
True or False
Following the Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939 the US embarked on a policy of economic aid to the Allies.
What is the real date for the "Day of Infamy"?
Dec. 7, 1941
What happened on the "Day of Infamy?"
Japan bobed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawii
True or False
The USSR enjoyed an economic boon during WWII from its involvement in WWII
False. The Soviet Union was devastated resembling a defeated country.
What is the disproportionate power-economic and military- that distinguished the US and the USSR from all other countries in the postwar(WWII) world?
When was the doctrine of containment pledged to halt the spread of communism through economic and miltary aid to Greece and Turkey?
Truman's address to Congress on March 12, 1947
What act signaled the readiness of the US to move beynod regionalism to globalism?
National Security Act of 1947
When did NATO form?
What does NATO stand for?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
True or False
The CIA's mission includes covert operations such as espionage, psychological warfare, paramilitary maneuvers, and political and economic interventions
True or False
The CIA is not legally bound to keep Congress informed of all intelligence activities>
False, CIA is legally bound
What executive agency represented the US in the GATT negotiations?
Dept. of Labor
What agency is responsible for formulating, administering, and coordinating the agriculture foreign policy?
Foreign Agricultural Service
List the 2 departments that are central figures in the making of economic policy in the global arena?
Dept. of Treasury and Commerce Dept.
Who serves on the National Security Council?
VP, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Secry of Defense, Secry of State, National Security Advisor with sometimes the Atty Gen and US Amb to the UN as needed
Under what president the the NSC become the presidnet's key personal foreign policy team?
Pres. Kennedy
In what gov't entity was the controversial Iran-Contra "arms for hostages" operation concieved and run by Lt. Oliver North?
National Security Council
True or False
Vaclav Havel opposed NATO
False, the Czech Rep. pres. supported NATO
What is the dominant force in the intelligence community?
True or False
Vaclav Havel supports inviting Russia into NATO
False, he opposes Russia's entry into NATO
List the 2 things Havel prescribes for NATO to survive:
1. redefine itself in comparison to the rest of the world
2. must open itself up to new European democracies
What is the policy of enlargement?
The US should support enlarging the sphere of market-oriented democracies on the assump[tion that additional open, democratic, and free-market societies will further the interests of the US
Who was the world's economic miracle by the 1990's
List 7 countries that achived remarkable rates of economic success and growth by the 1990's:
1.S. Korea
2. Phillipines
3. Singapore
4. Hong Kong
5. Taiwan
6. Malaysia
7. Indonesia
By the middle of the 1990's list the countries that had to be bailed out of economic problems by the International Monetary Fund:
1. Thailand
2. Indonesia
3. S. Korea
How did Thailand, S. Korea, and Indonesia get into financial trouble by the mid-1990's
collapsing currency AND plunging stock markets
What was the leading factor behind Asia's inability to compete in the world market place?
Their currencies were pegged to the US dollar and when the dollar rose in value Asia's exports became more expensive and less competitivee on world markets.
Who arrived in the sub-Saharan Africa to determine how to spend $50 Billion dollars in foreign aid?
Bono and US Treasury Secy Paul O'Neill
What is Bono's view on foreign aid?
He believes that foreign aid saves lives and raises living standards
What is Paul O'Neill's view of foreign aid?
Opposite of Bono's, he believes that it creates dependency
Give an example of an economic sanction that is coming under scrutiny
Trade embargo with Cuba
True or False
Jimmy Carter wants to eliminate trade embargo with Cuba
What is the definition of economic sanctions?
The use of embargoes and boycotts rather than military force to compel compliance
Cite an example of a foreign policy that was succefull with the use of economic sanctions?
Sanctions against South Africa forcing them to eliminate the practice of aparthied.
True or False
Economic sanctions have been successful against Haiti, Bosnia, Serbia, and Cuba?
Define coercive diplomacy
The effort to compel policy change in a targe state by means of economic sanctions and trade embargoes
List the 4 constitutional authorities of the president with regard to foreign policy:
1. power to commit troops worldwide
2. authority to receive ambassadors and therefore grants recognition to countries
3. power to negotiate treaties
4. appoint ambassadors and heads of all executive departments that make foreign policy.
List 3 constitutional authorities granted to Congress
1. declare war
2. appropriate money
3. make laws
True or False
President is the driving force behind US foreign policy
True or False
Congress acts as the brakes on the president's foreign policy initiatives
What president warned of the growing power and influence resulting from the "conjunction of an immense military establishement and a large arms industry?
Pres. Eisenhower
What was the term Pres. Eisenhower used to describe the "conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry?
military-industrial complex
When was the National Securtiy Council formed?
What agency provides the president with advice on all domestic, foreign , and military policies relating to national security?
National Securitiy Council
Who is Chairman of the National Security Council?
National Security Advisor
How does Congress rein in the President's implementation of foreign policies?
legislative oversight
Describe the purpose of the War Powers Resolution of 1973
To restore the balance of power with the ecxecutive branch and prevent military involvement without congressional approval.
What did the War Powers Resolution of 1973 do?
a president could no longer commit troops for longer that 60 days without specific congressional authorization. there is an optional 30 day extension for issues involving troop safety
What is Congress's tool in foreign policy?
It's control over federal spending
What was the highly controversial measure passed over Pres. Nixon's veto that stipulated that presidential commitments of US military forces cannot extend beyond 60 days without?
War Powers Resolution of 1973
What is the US's annual commitment to foreign aid ((as a percentage)?
less than 1/2 of 1% of the federal budget.
What are the 4 core national security areas?
1. foreign affairs
2. defense
3. intelligence
4. economic agencies
What agency houses Radio Free Europe?
United States Information Agency
What executive department's primary responsibility is to foreign affiars
State Department
What executive department has the primary responsibility for defense?
Defense Department
Intelligence is dominated by what agency?
Central Intelligence Agency
List additional executive agencies involved in intelligence
1. Bureau of Intelligence and Research
2. Defense Intelligence Agency
3. National Reconnaissance Officed
4. FBI
5.National Security Agency
List 4 gov agencies involved in economic foreign policy:
1. Dept of Treasury
2. Dept of Commerce
3. Dept of Agriculture
4. Office of the US Trade Representative
What executive department is the only department with a global view?
State Department
Approx. how many employees work for the State Department?
Who is the principal military advisor to the president?
Sec'y of Defense
True or False
The Secy of Defense is responsible for the formulation of general defense ppolicy and all matters of direct concern to the Dept of Defense?
List the 4 service branches of the Defense Departmehnt
1. army
2. air force
3. marines
4. navy
Who is the direct head of all the branches of the defense department?
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Who acts as the voice of the military side of the Pentagon?
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
How many people are employed by defense-related industries?
1,000,000 people or 1 million people

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