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Lady Bird johnson/ beautification
the wife of LBJ, helped raise public awareness of the landscape with her energetic campaign in the mid 60's, unconnected to ecological concepts, but one that reflected a popular dismay at the despoliation of the landscape by rapid economic growth.
nixon in china
February 21 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
the weathermen
an offshoot group from Students for a Democratic Society were responsible for a few case of arson and bombing that destroyed campus buildings and claimed several lives.
Betty Friedan/ The femine mystique
1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
Bob dylan/ Joan Baez
two of the musicians who used their music to express explicit political radicalism as well, both were leading folk singers of the era.
attacked what were Americans banality, hollowness, artificiality and isolation from nature, most committed adherents were the hippies, who came to dominate the Haight- Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco and other places, and the social dropouts, many of whom retreated to rural areas, rejecting modern society altogether and attempting to find refuge in a simpler, more natural existence.
Stonewall riot/ Gay liberation front
series of violent conflicts between LGBT people and New York City police officers that began during a 28 June 1969 police raid, and lasted several days. They were centered at the Stonewall Inn and are widely recognized as the catalyst for the modern-day movement towards LGBT rights. the clash was a watershed for the worldwide gay rights movement, as gay, lesbian and transgender people had never before acted together in such large numbers to forcibly resist police harassment directed towards their community
roth v. US
the Court sharply limited the authority of local governments to curb pornography.
Pentagon Papers/ Daniel Ellsberg
He was a former employee of the Defense Department and gave the New York Times the "Pentagon Paper" which was information on how the US government got involved in Vietnam. Very embarrassing to the government.
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional most state statutes restricting abortion. It ruled that a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy, and could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during the second trimester. Decision in effect overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states.
indian civil rights act
passed by Congress in 1968, guaranteed reservation Indians many of the protections accorded other citizens by the Bill of Rights, but which also recognized the legitimacy of tribal laws within the reservations.
Wilderness society/ sierra club
two of the most important environmental organizations, predated the rise of modern ecological science, and entered the the last decades of the 20th century re-energized and committed to the new concepts of environmentalism.
National congress of American indians/ declaration of indian purpose
the organization, founded in 1944, came to life in the struggle against termination. After a meeting in Chicago, this declaration, which stressed the right to choose our own way of life and the responsibility of preserving our precious heritage, was formed.
Free speech movement
since most members of the New Left were students, their radicalism was centered on issues related to the university. A 1964 dispute at the University of California at Berkeley over the rights of students to engage in political activities on campus, leading to this movement which cause the first outburst of what was to be nearly a decade of campus turmoil.
Rachel Carson/ Silent Spring
brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented portion of the American public. Silent Spring spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy—leading to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides—and the grassroots environmental movement it inspired led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
US v. Richard Nixon
the Supreme Court ruled that the president must relinquish the tapes to Special Prosecutor Jaworski, and later the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend three articles of impeachment.
Nixon Resignation
without additional evidence, Nixon might have been impeached by the full House and convicted by the Senate, but now that he had relinquished the smoking gun, which proved to be incontrovertible evidence, impeachment and conviction now seemed inevitable. Nixon brooded in the White House for several days, some say, on the verge of a breakdown, finally on August 8, 1974, he announced his resignation, the first American president to do so, and Gerald Ford took the oath of office.
environmental protection agency
an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land. The EPA began operation on December 2, 1970, when it was established by President Richard Nixon
christmas bombing
the heaviest and most destructive air raids of the entire war on Hanoi, Haiphong, and other NV targets, civilian casualties were high and fifteen B-52's were shot down, on December 30 the bombings were terminated.
William Calley/ My Lai
as morale and discipline among American troops was dwindling, this Lietenant was tried and convicted for overseeing a massacre of more than 100 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in 1968 near the village of My Lai, attracted wide public attention to the dejumanizing impact of the war both on soldiers and on the Vietnamese people.
engel v. vitale
Local and state laws requiring prayer in public schools were banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment.
gideon v. wainwright
Court decided that state and local courts must provide counsel for defendants in felony cases at the state's expense in any serious felony prosecution. Before, counsel was only appointed if the death penalty was involved.
silent majority
most of Nixon's domestic policies were to meet the demands of his constituency: conservative, middle-class people, the "silent majority" who he believed wanted to reduce federal interference in local affairs.
Furman v. Georgia
- the Court overturned existing capital punishment statutes and established strict new guidelines for such laws in the future.
Milliken v. Bradley
the court did approve busing as a tool for achieving integration, but they rejected a plan to transfer students across municipal lines (ex. between Detroit and its suburbs) to achieve racial balance.
Equal Rights Amendment
proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex, congress ruled against it.
exxon valdez
name of an oil tanker owned by the former Exxon Corporation. It gained widespread infamy after the March 24, 1989 oil spill in which the tanker, bound for Washington, USA, captained by Joseph Hazelwood, hit Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled an estimated one million US gallons (3.8 megalitres) of crude oil. This has been recorded as one of the largest spills in U.S. history and one of the largest ecological disasters.
Henry Kissinger
Nixon's national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler's anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.
clean air act/ clean water act
passed in 1970 and 1972, added additional tools to the governments arsenal of weapons against environmental degradation.
National Organization for women
Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
lon nol/ khmer rouge
at around the same time as Saigon, the Lon Nol regime in Cambodia fell to the murderous forces of the Khmer Rouge whose brutal policies led to the death of more than a third of the country's people over the next several years.
Cesar Chavez/ united farm workers
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.(successful boycott of lettuce and grapes)
watergate tapes/executive privelege
the president continued to insist on his innocence, and the matter might have rested had it not been for the disclosure during the Senate hearings of a White House taping system that recorded virtually every conversation in the president's office. Everyone investigating the scandal sought to access the tapes, but Nixon refused to release them.
Yom Kippur war/ Arab oil embargo
October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed forced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
American indian movement
an Indian activist organization in the United States. AIM burst onto the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating Indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States.
spiro agnew
Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
Kent State shootings
In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at Kent State University. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
Bakke v. Board of Regents of California
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
miranda v. arizona
Court declared that police officers must inform persons they arrest of their rights: the right to remain silent and the right to counsel during interrogation.
SALT I/ leonid Brezhnev
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
The New left/ Students for a Democratic Society
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
escobedo v. illinois
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.
Peace with honor
as the election of 1972 approached, the Nixon administration changed their plans, they stopped insisting on removal of North Vietnamese troops from the south, and focused more on a breakthrough in negotiations with the North Vietnamese.
cuyahoga fires
proof of the growing water pollution problems, in Cleveland, Ohio, this river actually burst into flame from time to time from the petroleum waste being dumped into it; the city declared the river an official fire hazard.
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
fall of saigon
late in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country in humiliating disarray. The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.
a new policy, in which the federal government withdrew all official recognition of tribes as legal entities, administratively separate from state governments, and made them subject to the same local jurisdictions as white residents, while also encouraging assimilation into white society.
warren burger
A conservative appointed by Nixon, he filled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
stone v. powell
the Court agreed to certain limits on the right of a defendant to appeal a state conviction to the federal judiciary.
Sandra Day O'connor/ Ruth Bader Ginsberg
first and second female Supreme Court justices, Ronald Reagan named the first, Bill Clinton named the second, respectively.
earth day/ gaylord nelson
Earth Day was originally proposed by this man as a series of teach-ins on college campuses, but it gradually took on a much larger life. Carefully managed by people who wanted to avoid associations with the radical left, it had an unthreatening quality that made it appealing to many people for whom antiwar demonstrations and civil rights rallies seemed threatening.
wounded knee ocupation
- urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshals ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogallala Sioux.
sam ervin/ john dean/ watergate cover up
McCord, a defendant during the trial of Watergate burglars, agreed to cooperate with the Senate investigations, his testimony opened a flood of confessions from White House and campaign officials, Dean, counsel to the president, leveled allegations against Nixon himself. The scandal was that the administration tried to manage investigations of Watergate, there was never any conclusive evidence that the president planned or approved the burglary.
archibald cox/ elliot richardson/ saturday night massacre
Cox was the special prosecutor appointed by the president to handle the Watergate cases, when he took Nixon to court and tried to force him to relinquish the recordings, Nixon fired him and Attorney General Elliot Richardson resigned in protest.
Nixon Doctrine
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
committee for the reelection of the president/ watergate break in
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
Cambodia Invasion
Nixon and Kissinger came up with this idea to tip the military balance in America's favor by destroying North Vietnamese military bases in Cambodia. The Cambodian invasion restored the dwindling antiwar movement to vigorous life, including some of the most widespread and vocal antiwar demonstrations ever.
Geraldine Ferraro
In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.
Presidents commission on the status of women/ Equal Pay Act
Kennedy established this organization, which brought national attention to sexual discrimination. In 1963, his administration helped win the passage of the Equal Pay Act, which barred the pervasive practice of paying women less than men for the same work.
Swann v. Charlotte- Mecklenberg Board of Education
Mecklenburg Board of Education- A unanimous decision that the busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.
paris accords
consisted of an immediate cease-fire, the North Vietnamese would release American POW's, the Thieu regime would survive, but NV forces already in the south would remain there.

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