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in the U.S, about how many pple contract the flu each year? many die?
-20-25 million contract the flu
-36,000 die/year
globally, about how many pandemics of influenza has there been since the 1500s?
-over 31
about how many pple died from tuberculosis from 1990-2005?
-over 120 million
in what year was HIV/AIDS presented in history and where?
is AIDS a disease or syndrome?...what are the specific symptoms?
-it is a syndrome rather than a disease
-no specific symptoms
what is a syndrome?
-collection of disease
what is the cause of AIDS?
-HIV, which destroys the T-cells
when does someone know that they have AIDS?
when T4- cells go below 200
how does HIV cause AIDS?
-when the T cells and helper cells, which are necessary in producing antibodies are destroyed
when it came to naming the disease, what 2 names were created before creating AIDS (b/c symptoms/ syndromes were different at times)?
1. 4H (Homosexuals,Haitians,Heroin users,& Hemophilias)
2.GRID (Gay Related Immune Deficiency)
what is the difference between HIV1 and HIV2?
-HIV1: more prevalent
-HIV2: less prevalent, harmful, transmissable (more in west africa)
what was AIDS initial based on when trying to find out the definition of it/ what it is?
clinical symptoms
the definition of AIDS was redefined in 1993. what was the impact of this change?
-increases AIDS prevalence
-1st time symptom free patiesnts can be diagnosed with AIDS.
true/ false
HIV infection is not AIDS.
true b/c it is a disease
what does HIV stand for?
Human: affects only humans
human immune system
Virus: caused by a virus that
can't be cured
what does AIDS stand for?
Acquired: not inherited
Immuno: affects immune system
Deficiency: body lacks
what is the end stage of the HIV virus?....can it also be transmitted?
AIDS which is not transmitted. just the virus is transmitted
what is a virus?
a parasitic agent that lives inside the cells of their host and reproduce only by making the host produce viral copies
what type of virus is HIV?
it is a retrovirus under the retroviridae family making it a potent disease agent
the spread of aids is more rapid in what type of area?
rural area
in 2010, what places will be massively infected?...about how many pple?
-india, china, russia, ethiopia, and nigeria
-about 75 million
in 2003, what were the top ten states considered to have a higha largest #s of aids cases?...which one had the most...(#of cases?)
1.NY (largest..6,684)
10. north carolina
what are the 3 most common routes of transmission of aids?
1.blood to blood
2.mother to infant
3.unprotected sex
what are the 4 major risks for heterosexuals?
2.adults w/ multiple sex partners
3.those w/STDs
4.heerosexuals use of drugs
two thirds of all people living with hiv are located where?
in sub-saharan africa
what place is the most affected region in the world and how many pple are living w/ the hiv?....what is the 2nd most affected?
1.sub sahara africa...25.8million prevalence,no change in 2005
when it deals with prevalence, what is the formula and things that happen to hiv/aids victims in deeloping countries?
-prevalence= #of cases of hiv in population/ total pop.
-1. stigmatized
2. discriminated against
3. silenced
4. living in denial
in 2005, about how many pple were newly infected?
5 million
in 2005, aids claimed how many lives?...mostly what group?
-3.1million ...more than half were children
what is the significance of 1959, 1960, mid 1970, 1981?
*1959- 1st scientific evidence of hiv infection in central africa
*1960-1st aids case
*mid 1970-spread around the world
*1981-1st recognition or case of hiv in u.s (la, ny, san. francisco)
world wide, how many pple were infected w/ hiv in 2004? many are infected per/year?
37 million.....40,000new pple per year.
what is an epidemiology?...epidemic?
-the study of detriments and distribution of diseases of population
-rapid &wide spreading of a contagious disease in a place among the pple
what are the 3 classes of anti-hiv treatment available in the u.s.?
-nrti (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
-nnrti (non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
-protease inhibitor
how does each of the 3 classes of anti-hiv treatments work?
-(nnrti& nrti both reverse the life cycle)

*nrti-incorporates itself into the viral
*nnrti-binds to the reverse transcripatase
*protease inhibitor---dont need to know
what characteristics make hiv differ from most viruses?
goes from rna to dna (retrovirus)
AZT is an example of what class of hiv treatment?
nrti (neucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
how are aids and hiv related?
cant have aids w/o hiv/ not everyone with hiv will get aids
what type of virus is hiv....what is aids a collection of?
what are some problems w/ vaccines?
-high vulnerability
-would need to devlop vaccines
what is a regiman failure and its types?
*when anti- hiv medications a person is taking does not control infection
*1. virological failure
2. immuniological failure
3. clinical failure
what type of regiman failure is most common and can still be detected in the blood after 48 days?
virologic failure
what is HAART and what does it stand for?...main goal?
-Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy
-is a combination of therapy which has shown to be effective
-is suppose to suppress hiv replication or viral load
what are the 4 categories for treament for aids/hiv?
2.protease inhibitors
3.infusion inhibitor
4.drug cocktails HAART therapy

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