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History Final Cumulative Term lists


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distrusted democracy, set up the academy, ideal society consisted of workers, soldiers, and ruling philosophers
the idea of living in a monastery and devoting your life to prayer
empire of rome, had an alliance with the pope
enlightened despots
absolute rulers that used their power to bring about social change
Charles V
in the reformation, called for Luther to give up his opinions, but he Luther does not recant
Oliver Cromwell
puritan general of the round-heads, is for parliament, gets Charles I killed
indian troops used by the british to attack other indians
Punic wars
rome vs. carthage, rome creates an army and defeats carthage
Hellenistic age
a time of mixing with greek and persian culture
encomienda system
the right to demand labor or tribute from native americans
social contract
an agreement for which people gave up their freedom for an orderly society
leader of Athens after the persian wars, lead a direct democracy, met with the council of 500
christian attempt to drive muslims out of spain
settled in hungary, and took over eastern europe
English Bill of rights
ensures that parliament has power over the monarchy
Tiberius Gracchi
Agrarian Bill, 320 acre max. farm, redistributed the extra land, is assassinated
wrote on inequality, injustice, and superstition, held in the bastille twice and was outlawed from Paris
the idea that god has already chosen who goes to heaven and who goes to hell
John Locke
believes that people are moral and reasonable, believed in natural rights
Bartolome de Las Casas
spanishman, who spoke out against the encomienda system
rallied for equal education of women
McCartney Mission
to start trade with china and england, McCartney angers the emperor
cape of good hope
the tip of south africa, that you can see india from
favored rule by a single leader, golden mean (moderate path between extremes)
Treaty of Tordesillas
the treaty that gave half the world to portugal and half the world to spain
calculated the orbits of planets revolving around the sun
the catholic reformation
Pope Paul III's attempt to gain moral and stop Protestantism
Louis XIV
believed in his divine right, moved the fronde to versailles, strengthened royal power
John Calvin
wrote a book on his religious views, there are only saints and sinners in the world
aztec emperor at the time of the conquering
Gothic style
larger windows, thinner walls, flying butress, taller and lighter
Johann Gutenburg
created the printing press
representatives that rules provinces in the name of the spanish king
believed that people were naturally good, believed that society corrupted people, wrote books on government opression
arranged alliances with tribes in South America to destroy the mayans
the need for an absolute monarchy
investiture controversy
the idea that someone other than the pope can appoint clergymen to their offices
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V allowing german princes to choose which religion to run their country by
people born in spain
socratic method, questioned beliefs, was sentenced to death
the commonwealth
the outcome of the civil war, lead by oliver cromwell
Estates General
started by Phillip, had representatives from french nobleman, clergy, and townspeople
Benedict of Nursia
established benedictine rule, rules that governed all monastic life
Gaius Gracchi
grow grain and sell it to the poor for cheap, is assassinated
Salvation by faith
all you have to do is believe in Jesus and you are saved
Sir Thomas Moore
author of Utopia, describes the perfect society
new dynasty run by the manchus, that was run by Confucian government
Francis Bacon
challenged the ideas of Aristotle, and scholarly tradition, emphasized experimentation and observation
a method that used reason to support christian beliefs
the idea that a government's ruling is defined by it's law
wrote a guide on how rulers can maintain power, the ends justify the means,
people that travel to countries to convert the people
Isaac Newton
formed the theory of gravity, the newtonian laws, calculus
catholic schism
at the time a number of popes could claim to be the real pope
divided the roman empire into two parts, and placed laws to dispel economic problems
Jan van Eyck
created teh portrait of the pregnant woman and the man with the mirror in the background
intellectual movement that focused on the classics, and worldly subjects
spanish conquerors that destroyed and pillaged south america
Henry VII
broke from the church and started the Anglican church
natural law
governing rules natural forces; gravity, magnetism
Peloponnesian Wars
war between Sparta and Athens, or the delian league vs. the peloponnesian league, sparta wins against athens
Client-patron relationship
olden day mafia, plebeian asks for a favor from the head of a patrician family
researched all types of government in history, detested the absolute monarchy, thought of separation of powers
Christopher Columbus
wanted to reach asia, reached south america and the bahamas
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
imposed mercantilist policies onto the economy, and put high tariffs on imported goods
economy needs to be regulated by government
the capital of the aztec empire
mughal empire
indian empire, empire established by muslim rulers, Portuguese hoped to take it over
vasco de gama
lead four ships around the cape of good hope, ten-month voyage, brought back a surplus of spices
a church court that tries people accused of heresy, many who did not comply were burned at the stake
Thomas Hobbes
believes that people are naturally cruel, greedy, and jealous, they must be strongly controlled
scientific method
a step by step process of discovery, uses reason and mathematical calculations
Cons ileum Plebes
plebeian assembly
produced the encyclopedie, which head held articles about government and writings of philosophers
Adam Smith
capitalism, supply and demand, argued for a free market, ideas helped shape 18-1900s economy
natural rights
all humans have the right to life, liberty, and property
produced a greek edition of the bible, spread humanism to the public, called for a bible in the vernacular
workers forced to work for a landlord in order to pay off debt
Struggle for the orders
plebeians vs. patricians, 494 plebeians walk out of the city, then patricians and plebeians are allowed to marry, tribunes are created,12 tablets are written
historian, wrote on the peloponnesian wars
Francisco Pizarro
interested in peru, took over the incas and killed their emperor
father of history, wrote on the persian wars
dutch farmers that moved around cape town and killed or enslaved everyone in the region
René Descartes
challenged old ideas, emphasized human reasoning, I think therefore I am
proposed that the universe is centered around the sun
revolutionary technique in renaissance art, allowed artists to create realistic scenes
compared the orbit of Jupiter's moons, to the orbit of earth around the sun
issued the Edict of Milan, which granted religious freedom to all roman citizens
the incan emperor at the time of the conquering
the exclusive control of a business or industry
people of african and european descent
american born descendants of spanish settlers
people of native american and european descent
a group of french thinkers that used science to fix problems in the government
laissez faire
the idea that business can operate with little or no government interference
Ferdinand Magellan
reached south america, found a strait and sailed through to the pacific
Hundred years war
Joan of arc leads the french vs. the english, english win, joan is burnt at the stake
when the papacy ostracizes an entire town or manor

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