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French social classes
hereditary right of a monarch to rule
Napoleonic Code
comprehensive and uniform system of laws establsihed for France by Napoleon
Congress of Vienna
series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which European leaders established long-lasting peace and security after Napoleon's defeat
Aztec capital
checks and balances
measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others
Mehmed II
aka Mehmed the Conqueror, who conquered Constantinople in 1453, and opened it to citizens of many religions and backgrounds
brillant general who laid foundation for Mughal Empire
process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Charles I
Stuart King of England, beheaded after English Civil War
growth of cities and migration of people into them
crop rotation
system of growing a different crop in a field to ensure fertility
fenced in fields of wealthy landowners to keep village farmers out
Jacobin leader who set out to wipe out every trace of France's past
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector; Puritan general in English Civil War
constitutional monarchy
system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law/constitution
nomads who lived in Indian subcontinent and established powerful empire there
Puritan supporters of Oliver Cromwell
capital of Ottoman Empire, now known as Istanbul
Virginia colony founded 1607 following decree from King James to found colony in North America
Battle of Trafalgar
naval battle in 1805 in which Napoleon's navy was defeated by Lord Nelson
coup d'etat
sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Safavid capital that was a showplace for artisans
Tennis Court Oath
place where 3rd estate delegates held meeting and vowed to stay until establishment of new constitution after being locked out of their meeting
Christopher Columbus
In 1492 sailed west across Atlantic to find alternate route to Asia: explored San Salvador, Cuba, Hispaniola; made 4 trips
Taj Mahal
shrine built by Shah Jahan in India as a shrine to his wife
Prince Henry
Portugeuse royal aka as "the Navigator," who built school for explorers
land controlled by another nation
"Greatest One"; grandson of Babur; ruled with wisdom and tolerance
Shah Jahan
created the Taj Mahal as a shrine for his wife
scorched earth policy
practice of burning crops and killing livestock during war so enemy cannot live off the land
political state whose people who share same language and culture
balance of power
political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
per capita tax on non-Muslim adult males to freely worship
Shah Abbas
helped create Safavid culture
group of Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in Massachusetts in 1620
Ming Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368-1644; dominant power in Asia
"overlord"; title of Ottoman rulers
Declaration of Independence
written by Thomas Jefferson, reflected ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment
Great Fear
wave of panic that spread to French countryside after storming of the Bastille
founder of Shi'a Islam; known as religious tyrant who killed any citizen who didn't convert
Dutch East India Company
company founded in early 17th century to establish and direct trade throuhgout Asia
God, glory, gold
primary motives for exploration
economic policy under which nations sought to increase wealth & power by obtaining raw materials and selling finished product back to colony at higher price
Reign of Terror
period during which Robespierre ruled France
Qing Dynasty
China's last dynasty, ruled from 1644-1912 and expanded China's borders to include Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet
Factory Act of 1819
British act that exerted some control over child labor in some factory cities
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who overthrew the Ditrectory, declared himself empror, and created French empire in Europe
1815 battle in which armies of Prussia, Great Britain, and the Netherlands defeated Napoleon
Otto von Bismarck
conservative Junker; prime minister instrumental in unification of Germany; master of realpolitik
Louis XIV
Bourbon king at time of French Revolution who was beheaded
Zheng He
Chinese Muslim admiral; led 7 exploratory voyages from 1405-1433 from southeast Asia to eastern Africa
second estate
comprised of French nobility
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between Spain and Portugal brokered by the pope that divided New World
Indusrial Revolution
shift, beginning in England, from goods produced at home to those produced in factories
development of industries for the machine production of goods
nonviolent religious group whose beliefs blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism
Byzantine Empire
conquered by Ottomans; primarily Greek Orthodox
Timur the Lame
Conqueror from Samarkand, who burned Baghdad, crushing Ottoman forces at Battle of Ankara in 1402, halting expansion of Ottoman empire
Concert of Europe
series of alliances among European nations devised by Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions
Tokugawa Shogumate
dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
English Civil War
conflict (1642-1649) in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of Englands monarchy
hereditary monarch of Iran
Invasion of Russia
Napoleon's most diastrous military campaign: Russian winter forced Napoleon's retreat and lead to his downfall
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer credited with giving Portugal direct sea route to India
"the politics of reality"--national success justified use of any means
favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
member of elite fighting force, comprised of Christian slaves, in Ottoman empire
native Manchurians who ruled China during Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) and expanded China's Borders
instrument used to determine direction
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the u.S. Consititution that portect citizens' basic rights and freedoms
New France
base of Frances colonial empire in North America
New Netherland
discovered by Henry Hudson for the Dutch; formed Dutch West India Company established to colonize the region and expand the fur trade
Marie Antoinette
wife of Louis XIV and daughter of Maria Theresa, empress of Austria; beheaded
one who doesn't believe in a certain religion; those that don't believe in Islam
Safavid Empire
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia between 16th and 18th centuries
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs
use of ships or troops to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region
Ottoman policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Aztec emperor conquered by Hernando Cortes
German emperor
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered Incas
business organization, run by professionals but owned by stockholders
most successful warrior and "founder" of Ottomans
19th century; people, mainly nobles and wealthy landowners, who wanted to preserve traditional monarchies
Suleyman the Lawgiver
aka Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman ruler; great military leader, created law code, simplifiedsystem of taxation, reduced govt. bureaucracy
Incan king conquered by Pizarro
strong conservative member of Prussia's wealthy landowning class
third estate
comprised of the middle class and peasants
aka King Philip, Native American ruler, who in 1675 led attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts
grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas that included right to use Native American laborers
group of advisors or ministers chosen by head of country to help make government decisions
Hundred Days
brief period in 1815 in which Napoleon made last bid for power
group of people seeking freedom from religious persecution in England
Austrian chief minister who presided Congress of Vienna; proposed compensation, legitimacy, balance of power
share of ownership in a business
region southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and European part of Turkey
Old Regime
social and political system of France in which people were divided into three social classes or estates
direct vote in which a country's people can approve or reject a proposal
laissez faire
economic principle that government should not regulate business
led Red Shirts; helped Cavour unite southern Italy
radical group during French Revolution who wanted greater voice in government, lower prices, and end to food shortages
Elba Island
island off coast of Italy where NApoleon was sent into exile
period following Protecorate in which English monarchy (Charles II) restored
Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters
belief that people should be loyal to their nation in which they share same language and culture
first estate
comprised of French clergy
economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures for a profit
government-run public school in France
person who lives country for political reasons
habeas corpus
document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge to determine whether imprisonment is legal
person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
nephew of Napoleon and a strong ruler under whose reign France prospered
now known as Istanbul; strategic capital of Ottoman Empire
Holy Alliance
league of European nations formed by leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after Congress of Vienna
Despotic ruler, whose strict laws led to divisions and decentralization of government in Mughal Empire
federal system
system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and number of individual states
19th century; people, mainly middle class, who wanted political power to rest in elected parliaments, incorporating Enlightenment ideas
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who discovered Montreal and the St. Lawrence River
French & Indian War
conflict, known as Seven Years War in Europe, between Britain and France in 1754-1763 for control of territory in North America
sturdy ship with triangular sails that help vessel sail,effectively against wind
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and Europe in an effort to destry British economy
Glorious Revolution
bloodless overthrow of James II (English) to be replaced by William and Mary
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
brass circle with rings marked off in degrees so ships captain could calculate latitude
William and Mary
ruled after Glorious Revolution; ruled under limited monarchy
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who sailed to Cape of Good Hope
James Watt
designed an efficient steam engine that provided a cheap convenient source of power
Line of Demarcation
imaginary longitudinal line drawn by pope to divide new lands claimed by Portugal from those claimed by Spain
follower of Osman (also called Othman)
St. Helena Island
remote island in South Atlantic where Napoleon was sent into secind exile and where he died
Camillo di Cavour
lead Italian unification; prime minister of Sardinia; drove Austrians out of Italy's noerthern provinces
warrior for Islam
Petition of Right
document signed Charles I in 1628 that the monarch's power
Columbian Exchange
aka Global Exchange or Grand Exchange; global transfer of plants, animals, & diseases that occurred during European colonization of Americas
joint-stock company
business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share profits
Guerilla warfare
loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops
radical Frecn Revolution group led by Robespierre
19th century; people who favored drastcu change to extend democracy to all people
Alexander II
son of Czar Nicholas who tried to move Russia to modernization and social change; issued Edict of Emancipation that partially freed serfs

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