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AP US Vocab 1918-1941


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Bonus March
Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
Washington Naval Conference
1921-1922 - setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have, and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have - attempt to prevent WWII - stop battleship arms race
Universal Negro Improvement Association
An international self-help organization founded by Marcus Garvey.
Harlem Reaissance
An African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.
Cash and Carry
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915. - Nativists
21st Amendment
Repealed the 18th amendment, prohibition
Andrew Mellon
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day who, along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
National Origins Act
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians.
Court Packing Scheme
Proposal by Franklin D. Roosevelt that would allow the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age, totaling six in all
Ernest Hemingway
American author - part of the Lost Generation (group of American authors who moved to Paris after WWII)
Congress of Industrial Organization (CLO)
group welcomed all autoworkers, steelworkers, and electrical workers
Wagner Act
May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
Elijah Mohammad
1950s - led Black Muslims and the Nation of Islam
Kellogg-Briand Pact
This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries.
Back To Africa Movement
Mobilized thousands of African-American's who wished to leave the state for the Republic of Liberia in the late 1800s
Calvin Coolidge
Became president after Harding's death - was against progressive movement and government regulation - said government had no obligation to protect its citizens
America First Committe
1940 organization formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
"Share the Wealth"
Plan by Huey Long - radical agitator - painted a picture where everyman was king
Scottsboro Boys
1930s - nine black boys in Scottsboro were wrongly accused of raping two white girls
Franklin Roosevelt
President that took power from Hoover - formed the New Deal - led the US through WWII
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Author of "The Great Gatsby", a classic novel of wit and style that captured the "Roaring Twenties" with unsurpassed verbal genius
Margaret Sanger
Early 1900's fought to leagilize birthcontrol
Stimson Doctrine
1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
Scopes Trial
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
English term for subsidized living wages - simlar to US welfare
Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
Warren G. Harding
The 29th President of the United States
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Started in May 1935 and headed by Harold Hopkins this organization employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed)
Charles Lindbergh
Famous aviator and pro-isolationist pre-WWII
Lend-Lease Act
Program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermudas, and the British West Indies.
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote
John L. Lewis
The militant founder of the United Mine Workers union
Sit-down Strike
These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production, thus paralyzing the business. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937.
Name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president
Henry Ford
Founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production
Herbert Hoover
President - during his term the US market crash and the great depression started
Schenck V. U.S.
Supreme Court Case that established the precedent that free speech could be suspended in times of clear and present danger
Hundred Days
Term for the measures taken during Roosevelt's first days in office, from Mar 9 to Jun 16, enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy.
Sinclair Lewis
first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town
Schechter v U.S. (sick chicken)
1935 - New York company was charged with violation of NRA (Nat'l recovery assciation) regulations - supreme court declared the NRA illegal because it regulated interstate commerce, a violation of federal law
Social Security Act
1935 - Old age pension funded by pay roll tax on employees and employeers
National Labor Relations Act
This 1935 act established defined unjust labor practices, secured workers the right to bargain collectively, and established the National Labor Relations Board
Sacco and Vanzetti
Two robbers who killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree, Massachusetts. They were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. The jury found them guilty.
Keynesian Economics
The economic philosophy that when the demand doesn't meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. The solution to the great depression then was to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created.
Palmer Raids
A series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the United States.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Act that restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Langston Hughes
An American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry
Fair Labor Standards Act
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
18th Amendment
Established prohibition in the United States
Marcus Garvey
black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U.S. In 1907, he led a printers' strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. In 1914 he founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) and in 1916, he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World.
Brain Trust
any of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House.
Albert Fall
Secretary of the Interior under President Harding, was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal
Securities and Exchange Commission
Established in 1934 this commission protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
Thomas Hart Benton
A zealous supporter of western interests, he staunchly advocated government support of frontier exploration during his term in the Senate from 1820 - 1850. A senator from Missouri, but he opposed slavery.
John (Grapes of Wrath) Steinbeck
American author whose 1939 book "The Grapes of Wrath" illustrated the plight of a dust bowl family.
National Recovery Administration
established production limits, set wages and working conditions, and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices
Georgia O'Keeffe
American painter chiefly known for paintings in which she synthesized abstraction and representation in paintings of flowers, rocks, shells, animal bones and landscapes.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Group founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
1933 - A governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams, the construction of hydroelectric dams, and controlling floods
New Deal
In light of the Great Depression a proposed a series of relief and emergency measures through which FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs, by relieving the plight of the people, and thus recover the nation's wealth.
Huey (Kingfish) Long
Popular governor who called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million in his "Share The Wealth" plan. He was assassinated in 1935
Harding's desired state - state before WWI
Spirit of St. Louis
The plane Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic in 1927
Lost Generation
This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society, these writers were seen to be ex-patriots and included Earnest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald
H.L. Mencken
924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers - was very critical of American work - attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class
Edward Hopper
American painter and printmaker - most famous painting = nighthawks
Teapot Dome / Elk Hills Scandals
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
National Industrial Recovery Act
1933 act that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics.
20th Amendment
Advanced Presidential inaugurations from March 4 to January 20, shortening the "lame duck" period

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