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Global Review


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Copernicus, Nicolaus
(1473-1543) Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Theorized that the Earth orbited the Sun (heliocentric system) and laid the foundations of modern astronomy.
A collection of nations or peoples ruled by a single authority, usually a monarch, but can be other systems of government as well. 2. A very large and powerful industrial organization
Alexander the Great
(356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.
Hobbes, Thomas
(1588-1679) English philosopher and political theorist. Wrote Leviathan, where he favored an absolute government as the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
An independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding lands.
The oldest known type of belief system in the world. Animists practice nature worship. They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. Animists also believed that ancestors watch over the living from the spirit world. This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.
An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods. Also promotes a free market regulated by supply and demand.
Calvin, John
(1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven.
Bonaparte, Napoleon
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
cultural diffusion
The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war
Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
A person who is skilled at a craft, such as weaving, or woodcarving.
Bolívar, Simón
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
The cultivating of land, producing of crops, and raising of livestock for human
bubonic plague
An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.

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