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HST103-15 Midterm


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The Code of Hamurrabi
Records is his code of laws, the earliest-known example of a ruler proclaiming publicly to his people an entire body of laws, arranged in orderly groups. The code was carved upon a black stone monument, eight feet high, and clearly intended to be reared in public view.
b. It begins and ends with addresses to the gods. Even a law code was in those days regarded as a subject for prayer, though the prayers here are chiefly cursing of whoever shall neglect or destroy the law.
c. The code then regulates in clear and definite strokes the organization of society.
a. The earliest writing in Mesopotamia was a picture writing invented by the Sumerians who wrote on clay tablets using long reeds

cuni, which means "wedge," and forma , which means "shape."
The Pyramids
a. Pyramids were stone tombs built as the eternal resting place of kings (more than 100 were built).
b. To the ancient Egyptians the pyramids represented the primeval mound that was the origin of life in their creation myths or the solidified rays of the sun.
c. Most famous was the pyramids at Giza: largest is 482 feet. It took 84,000 laborers 20 years to build
Egyptian monotheism
a. The ancient Egyptian religion left a rich legacy in world history, and directly influenced Greek mythology, Judaism, and Christianity. Monotheistic religion or monotheism, the belief in a single god, was originated in Egypt.
b. Divine Kinship: the Egyptians believed that the king was the incarnation of Horus, a sky or falcon god, or Re the sun god, and Osiris the god of the dead. The king was the divine herdsman while the people were "cattle of god."
c. The Ancient Egyptians believed in One God who was self-produced, self-existent, immortal, invisible, eternal, omniscient, almighty, etc. This One God was never represented. It is the functions and attributes of his domain that were represented.
Classical Greece
a. Ancient Greece was a civilization that thrived around the Mediterranean Sea around 2200-146 BC, known for advances in philosophy, architecture, drama, government, and science, especially during the Classical Age (480-323 BC). Western civilization traces its roots directly to Greece.
b. Athens and Sparta dominated Classical Greek city-states. Athens and its Delian League and the smaller Spartan confederacy fought in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), and Athens lost
Roman Empire
a. The foundation and integration of the Roman empire (27 BC-AD 476): the Roman empire under Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) set the standard for all future empires. Furthermore, the era of “Roman peace” facilitated economic, political, and cultural integration, and completed the Greco-Roman synthesis, the rich combination of cultural elements that for two millennia has shaped what we call the Western tradition
Oracle Bones
They are mostly ox scapulae (shoulder blades) and turtle shells or plastrons, used for scapulomancy: after being heated (such as having a heated rod inserted through the bone), they would crack, and the priest in charge of the ceremony would read the cracks to learn the answer to a question written on the bone. He looked both for the presence of a crack or the absence of a crack to assay the relative strength of one question's answer to another, or to balance the weight between any two or more questions. Often these ceremonies would be performed to foretell the future
4 Great Inventions of china
a. China was the first nation to invent paper.
b. Printed in Tang Dynasty. A Buddhist sutra is the first book in the world with a verifiable date of printing
c. Gunpowder Credit for the invention of gunpowder also goes to ancient China. Ancient necromancers discovered in their practice of alchemy, that an explosion could be induced if certain kinds of ores and fuel were mixed in the right proportions and heated, thus leading to the invention of gunpowder
d. the Compass Sinan (Warring States Period)the earliest guide tool in the world
The compass, an indispensable navigational tool, was another significant gift from ancient China
Samurai (Bushi)
a. Most samurai were bound by a strict code of honor, the Bushido (武士道 bushidō?) and were expected to set an example for those below them. A notable part of the Bushido code is seppuku (切腹 seppuku?) which allowed a disgraced samurai to regain his honor by passing into death, where samurai are still beholden to the rules of the Bushido code. However, the bushido code was written in peace-time and it may not truly reflect the samurai's abilities as a warrior.
b. A word roughly meaning "gentleman," it is sometimes used for samurai, in particular in words such as bushi (武士, meaning warrior or samurai).
a. Jesuit mission in China brought about the Chinese Rites controversy in the early 18th century.
b. Jesuit scholars working in these foreign missions to the "heathens" were very important in understanding their unknown languages and strived for producing Latinicized grammars and dictionaries, the first organized efforts at linguistics. This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written 1603)
Seven Year War
a. The Seven-Year War was the conflict from 1592 to 1598 on the Korean peninsula, following two successive Japanese invasions of Korea. Japanese troops invaded Korea in 1592 with the professed aim of conquering China. Japan reinvaded in 1597 during a truce. In both campaigns, the Japanese invasions were defeated by the allied forces of Korea and China.
Columbian Exchange
a. The Columbian Exchange (also sometimes known as The Grand Exchange) has been one of the significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture, and culture. The term is used to describe the enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492. That year, Christopher Columbus' first voyage launched an era of large-scale contact between the Old and the New World that resulted in this ecological revolution: hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.
Absolute Monarchy
a. Absolute monarchy is a monarchial form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. Although some religious authority may be able to discourage the monarch from some acts and the sovereign is expected to act according to custom, in an absolute monarchy there is no constitution or body of law above what is decreed by the sovereign (king or queen). As a theory of civics, absolute monarchy puts total trust in well-bred and well-trained monarchs raised for the role from birth.
Scientific Revolution
a. In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. These boundaries are controversial, with some claiming that the proper start of the scientific revolution was the publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium by Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543, while others wish to extend it into the 18th century. Nevertheless, the basic themes of the revolution are readily recognised.

b. The seventeenth century was a period of major scientific changes. But at that time the word "science" did not have its current meaning, and "scientist" had not been coined; Newton was called a natural philosopher. Not only were there major theoretical and experimental developments, but even more importantly, the way in which scientists worked was radically changed. At the beginning of the century, science was highly Aristotelian; at its end, science was mathematical, mechanical, and empirical.
a. At the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno "kingdoms" or territories on Hispaniola, each led by a principal Cacique (chieftain), to whom tribute was paid. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the largest Taíno population centers may have contained around 3,000 people or more. The Taíno were historical neighbors and enemies of the Carib, another group with origins in South America who lived principally in the Lesser Antilles
5 Pillars of Islam
a. The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to the five most fundamental aspects of Sunni Islam

b. The profession of faith in Allah (Shahadah) - the declaration that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is his messenger.

c. Prayer (Salat) - establishing of the five daily Prayers.

d. The paying of alms (Zakat) - which is generally 2.5% of the total savings for a rich man working in trade or industry, and 10% or 20% of the annual produce for agriculturists. This money or produce is distributed among the poor. Also, one may give 25% of found treasure such as money won in a non-gambling lottery.

e. Fasting (Sawm) - refraining from eating, drinking or satisfying sexual needs from dawn to dusk in the month of Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic lunar calendar.

f. The Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) - this is done during the month of Zul Hijjah, and is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it. If the Muslim is in ill health or in debt, he or she is not required to perform Hajj.
Silk Road
a. was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Chang'an (today's Xi'an), China, with Antioch, Asia Minor, as well as other points. Its influence carried over into Korea and Japan.
b. These exchanges were significant not only for the development and flowering of the great civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Persia (Iran), India and Rome but also helped to lay the foundations of our modern world
The Great Wall
a. is an ancient Chinese fortification built circa 200 BC and greatly strengthened from the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th century, during the Ming Dynasty, in order to protect the Ming empire from raids by the Mongols and Turkic tribes. It was preceded by several walls built since the 3rd century BC against the raids of nomadic tribes coming from areas in modern-day Mongolia and Manchuria. The Wall stretches over a formidable 6,352 km
a. Shi'as reject the rule of the initial three caliphs who proclaimed leadership after Muhammad's passing, believing them illegitimate and inferior to Muhammad's family in all respects. The caliphs are followed by Sunni Muslims, who believe Muhammad did not choose a successor, and that the caliphs were elected according to what they condsider Muhammad's instruction of consultation (Shura).
Feudal Japan
a. The "feudal" period of Japanese history, dominated by the powerful regional families (daimyo) and the military rule of warlords (shogun), stretched from the twelfth through the nineteenth centuries. This time is usually divided into periods following the reigning family of the shogun:
Atlantic Slave Trade
a. The slave trade originated in a shortage of labour in the new world.
b. The Atlantic slave trade was the purchase and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World
Foot Binding
a. Foot binding was a custom practiced in some parts of medieval China on young females for many centuries and finally discontinued in the early 20th century.

. Young girls' feet, usually at age 6 but often earlier, were wrapped in tight bandages so they could not grow normally, would break and become deformed as they reached adulthood.

Wealthy Japan
Taj Mahal
a. the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements of Hindu and Islamic architectures. The Taj has achieved special note because of the romance of its inspiration
b. Shah Jahan, who commissioned the monument, was a prolific patron with effectively limitless resources
Spinning Jenny
a. The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire in the north west of England (although Thomas Highs is another candidate identified as the inventor).
Factory System
a. The factory system was a method of manufacturing adopted in England during the Industrial Revolution. Workers would come to work in a city factory, often making low-quality goods in mass amounts
Greco-Roman Synthesis
a) The Romans supplied their own peculiar talents for government, law, and architecture and also spread their Latin language. In this way they created the Greco-Roman synthesis, the rich combination of cultural elements that for two millennia has shaped what we call the Western tradition
a) refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. The term also more specifically refers to a historical intellectual movement, "The Enlightenment." This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge.
Ottoman Empire
One of the three major dynasties of the muslim empires.

a) was an imperial power, centered around the borders of the Mediterranean Sea, that existed from 1299 to 1922.
b) The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a consequence of World War I when Allied forces, including the Arabs, eventually defeated Ottoman forces in the Middle East
Tang Dynasty
a) In the Tang Dynasty Confucian Civil Service Exams were firmly established as the main avenue to office.
b) Considered to be the height of imperial china, The Glory and Splendor of the Tang Dynasty:
i) (1) Model centralized government;
ii) (2) military power;
iii) (3) economy and commerce;
iv) (4) cultural development and diversity . . .
c) The most famous Tang emperor, Tang Taizong (AD 626-49)
Alexander the Great
a) is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the known world before his death.
b) His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and rule over foreign areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age.
b) Plato (428?-347 BC), Greek philosopher from Athens, one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophy. He was the first to use the term philosophy, which means “love of knowledge.” A disciple of Socrates, Plato accepted Socrates’ basic philosophy and dialectical style of debate: the pursuit of truth through questions and answers. He founded the Academy in 387 BC, with Aristotle as the its most prominent student.
a) Was an ancient Greek philosopher, student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
b) Very influential Greek philosopher
c) Aristotle rejected Plato's idealism and focused on nature
Julius Caesar
c) He is widely considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses of all time, as well as a brilliant politician and one of the ancient world's strongest leaders.
Euclid of Alexandria
a) was a Hellenistic mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC–283 BC). Often considered as the "father of geometry", his most popular work is Elements, which is often considered to be one of the most successful textbooks in the history of mathematics
a) China’s first great philosopher, founder of Confucianism. His teachings about ethics and the role of individuals in society were recorded in the Analects (Lun Yu),
b) Confucianism: the teachings of Confucius, the first teacher of China, a highly sophisticated system of ethics for government and moral codes for society, and the principal school of thought throughout Chinese history.
Qin Shihuangdi
a) (259-210 BC), the first emperor of China
b) First completed the great wall
c) More than 6000 life-size terra-cotta warriors stood in perfect formation in the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, from the time of his death in 210 BC until their discovery in 1974.
Prince Shotoku
a) Shotoku was the regent for emperor Suiko (592-628), and one of Japan’s most revered figures for his adoption of Chinese institutions:
i) --opened direct contact with China by sending four missions to the Sui Dynasty, starting in 600;
ii) --adopted the Chinese calendar
a) Is believed by Muslims to be God's final prophet sent to guide all of mankind with the message of Islam. He is referred to as "The Prophet" within the faith. Non-Muslims generally consider him to be the founder of Islam.
Vasco de Gama
a) Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the European Age of Discovery, and the first person to sail directly from Europe to India.
b) Da Gama's voyage was successful in establishing a sea route from Europe to India that would permit trade with the Far East, without the use of the costly and unsafe Silk Road caravan routes, dominated by Muslims, in the Middle East and Asia.
Christopher Columbus
a) Columbus is commonly credited as "the" European discoverer of the Americas because of the profound impact his contact wrought on history. His voyage marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the Americas.
Captain James Cook
was an English explorer, navigator and cartographer. He made three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, accurately charting many areas and recording several islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time.
i) discovery and claiming of the east coast of Australia;
ii) the European discovery of the Hawaiian Islands;
Nicolas Copernicus
a) was a Polish astronomer of German origin, who is remembered for providing the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system
b) Considered one of the most important scientific hypotheses ever made. It came to mark the starting point of modern astronomy and, in turn, modern science, encouraging young astronomers, scientists and scholars to take a more skeptical attitude toward established dogma
a) French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. Voltaire is well-known for his sharp wit, philosophical writings, promotion of the rights of man, and defense of civil liberties.
b) He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict censorship laws in France and harsh penalties for those who broke them. Voltaire is considered one of the most influential figures of his time.
Dona Marina
a) a Native American woman (almost certainly Nahua) from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who accompanied Hernán Cortés and played an active and powerful role in the Spanish conquest of Mexico, acting as interpreter, advisor and intermediary. She was mistress to Cortés, and bore him a son, who is considered one of the first Mestizos
Hernan Cortez
a) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain
a) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from the time of his accession in 1556 until 1605. He is widely considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors
Peter the Great
a) Peter carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed Russia into a major European power
James Watt
a) a Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution.

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