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Albrecht von Wallenstein
swedish king who devestated the habsburg forces during the swedish phase
Catherine d'Medici
ruled as regent for her sons after the death of her husband; unfortunately, her inexperience was manipulated by the guise family and turned france nearly into a theater of war
Cosimo d'Medici
the "patriarch" of the ruling family of florence that held power throughout the 15th century
Edict of Fontainebleau
document that officially revoke the edict of nantes, bringing about a direct attack on the huguenots
Charles V
HR emperor who sought papal support for the unification of the HRE by attacking luther
group of military officers that attempted to revolt against peter the great on his absence
Thomas a Kempis
author of "the imitation of christ"; early northern christian writer who challenged individuals to live a godly life rather than focus just on knowledge
Pacification of Ghent
the union of the low countries against the spanish aggression; shocked phillip because even the catholics turned against him
flemish painter who brought a sense of worth to peasantry in his paintings such as CHILDREN AT PLAY and THE BEGGARS
french capital built by louis XIV to illustrate his absolute authority in france
tokugawa shogunate established fuedalism; act of seclusion closed this nation off of european influences foa an additional 200 years; this "warrior based" society rejected the merchants; nagasaki was the only european trade port allowed
French and Turks
provided a major political distraction for the holy roman emperor, allowing and oppprtunity for lutheranism to develop and spread throughout northern germany
offered an interpretation of the renaissance that illustrated the "rebirth" of western civilization out of the slums of "the dark ages"
Schmalkaldic League
northern german allieance of lutheran princes that opposed the emperor's attempt to quash lutheranism and unite the HRE
John Wycliffe
english church reformer who called for the church to purify itself during the great schism he encourage church writers to write in the vernacular rather than latin
Thirty-Nine Articles
act of parlament that created the theological foundation for the modern anglican church; embraced seven sacraments, but identified two as very special and the other five as minor
Count of Olivares
spanish advisor to the bourbon monarchy who worked to modernize spain
northern german clergyman who sold indulgences, representing the spiritual corruption of the church
ruler of milan who invited the french into italy in hopes of extending his power, unfortunately he led to the demise of the italian renaissance
Ferdiand of Aragon
his marriage to isabella united spain
high renaissance architect who completed the church at san lorenzo and the dome in the cathedral of florence
Union of Utrecht
agreement of the dutch netherlands that eventually led it to independence
Charles VIII
king of france who was invited into italy by a ruling family
Alexander VI
renaissance pope that guiccardini identified as the "most evil and lucky" of all; his son, daughter, and political dealings were legendary
second estate
the social class that included nobility
Mary I
"bloody" queen who reverted england to catholicism in the 1550's
Cardinal Richelieu
french advisor who worked to weaken the habsburg power during the thirty years' war
universay person
the concept that an individual can become a well-rounded individual, beneficial to self and society through the humanities
Duke Maximilian
leader of catholic league who opposed the protestants
Cardinal Richelieu
chief advisor to louis XIII; ended the power of the huguenots and worked to reduce power of the habsburgs in the thirty years' war
philip attempted to use this in hopes of uniting his vast empire with catholicism
Alsace and Lorraine
land in which germans and french compete over
Leo X
renaissance pope who ushered in the reformation because of his desire for a great building program in Rome
Henry of Navarre
became king in 1589 and converted to catholicism soon after, stating that "paris is well worth the mass"
Peace of Nystad
ended the great northern war, granting russia large amounts of land along the baltic sea
Micheal Romanov
established the dynasty that would rule russian until 1917
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of canterbuty who ushered in the protestant anglican church by convincing two kings to use parliament; unfortunately, he was burned at the stake by the first tudor queen
Richard III
last york king, defeated in the war of roses
ming dynasty led an "age of discovery" circa 1400; macao and hong kong were european trade colonies; qing dynasty culturaly isolated this nation from european influences; confucianism isolated htis region
Isabella d'Este
"first lady of the world"; maintained a library and influenced political decisions of mantua
austria used this type of government to maintain control over the numerous ethinicities
Holy Synod
peter's religious "reform" that placed tsar in control of the orthodox church
parisian uprising similar to the war of the roses in england where french nobles attempted to assert power over the monarchy, but instead ended up reducing their own power
frederick william's creation to take control of the prussian nobles
his christian humanist writings, such as "the praise of folly," created a critical spirit for luther to stand on in 1517
Edward VI
young king of england whose reign ushered in the most radical protestant phase
Diet of Worms
meeting where luther stated, "here, i stand!" rather than serving man, luther stated he alone served god
Act of uniformity
act of parlament that reasserted the book of common prayer with some catholic alterations as the chief book of the anglican church
term that refers to merchants and bankers
Modern Devotion
norht european christian group that sought to encourage an individual, mystical relationship with god, apart from the formality of church
Charles the Bold
duke of burgundy that was killed in conflict with the swiss, leading to the dissolution of his feudal state
Sea Dogs
english pirates who worked to pilage spanish gold while attempting gain control of the oceans for the english
Gustavus Adolphus
protestant mercenary who led the habsburg forces during the danish phase; eventually, he became the leading landowner in the HRE and was soon assasinated
Treaty of Karlowitz
gave austria control over hungary
Jan Hus
early bohemian religious reformer that was ececuted at the end of the Great Schism
"father of hummanism"; studied classical greek and latin as well as introduced the concept of emotion in his "sonnets to laura"
Frederick I
first king of prussia
Christian IV
danish king who attempted to assert hes position as leader of the european protestants; the danish humiliating defeat brought and end to that dream
da Vinci
even though his MONA LISA and THE LAST SUPPER are perfect examples of high renaissance art, his true genius was defined in his work of anatomy and engineering
Charles VII
french king who brought victory in the hundred years' war, gained taille
Cardinal Mazarin
advisor to the young louis XIV who helped secure his power during the parisian uprisings in the 1650's
Louis XI
"spider king" who was able to gain a large portion of burgundy with devious ways
Treaty of Ryswick
document that ended the war of the league of augsburg, forcing louis XIV to give up some land
Van Eyck
flemish painter who mastered the art of oil paint in his GIOVANNI ARNOLFINI AND HIS BRIDE
french calvinists
John Hus
bohemmian reformer who called for changes in the church ; unfortunately, the great schism came toa an end and the new pope had him burned at the stake to illustrate the pope's new power
Mary, Queen of Scots
executed in 1587, directly led to philip's attempt to invade england
Ferdinand II
HRE who asserted too much power when he attempted to restore catholic lands
his SCHOOL OF ATHENS is an excellent example of classical painting of the high renaissance, he does foreshadow the lated renaissance by his use of exaggeration and pudginess in his madonna series
because of the economic prosperity of the commercial revolution, italy never formed into this
wrote the BOOK OF THE COURTIER to identify the new values a modern noble must attain in hopes of retaining his traditional role
Edict of Nantes
established "a state within a state" by guarenteeing huguenots special political, military, and religious freedom
Elizabeth I
"virgin queen" who sought stability above any religious conviction
Cardinal Wosley
was dismissed by king henry VIII as archbishop of canterbuty when he failed to secure an annulment from the pope
Leopold I
great austrian leader that defeated the turks at vienna
Parlement of Paris
most powerful court that competed with the monarchy for political power, controlled by french nobles
Bishop Bossuet
tutor of louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure louis' ideal of absolute monarchy
Charles II
last habsburg king of sapin, his death caused the war of spanish succession
leader of the jesuits who sought to revert protestants, stop the spread of protestantism and diffuse catholicism throughout the world
the "father of modern history"; wrote "the history of italy" and removed recorded miracles from recent history; instead he identified the political, economic, and social patterns of history
the "divine one" who mastered the high renaissance sculpture with works such as LA PIETA and DAVID
Charles V
because of a series of unforeseen deaths, he became HR emperor, king of austria, king of the netherlands, king of spain, and dominant figure in other areas of europe
Peace of Utrecht
treaty that brought and end to the war of spanish succession, ensuring the bourbons both a spanish and french crown, but the two crowns could never be united
John Knox
scottish calvanist reformer who identified geneva as the "most perfect school of christ" in the world
swiss reformer who believed that the presence of christ in the "lord's supper" was only symbolic
Frederick the Wise
elector of saxony who used the reformation for political gains, making the HRE more divided rather than united
his patron, medici family, encouraged his study and establishment of moder neo-platonism and hermeticism
Philip II
king of spain, low countries, most of italy, and most of the americas; he was the first of the "spanish habsburgs"
catholic theologian who forced luther in a debate to denounce the authority of the popr, making luther a heretic
Henry II
last strong valois king, unfortunately a period of instability began with his accidental jousting death in the 1560's
William the Silent
leader of the dutch rebellion against spainish rule
St. Petersburg
peter's "window to the west"; he gained it because of his victory in the great northern war
medieval tax levied on land or property that was increased under richelieu
St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre
turning point in the french wars of religion; the result was the alienation of the guise family and the uniting of european protestans against militant catholic aggression
Ivan III
russian czar who removed mongolian influences and established moscow as the new capital
Henry VIII
the great "defender of faith" in england that began the english reformation for a personal and political reasons
Frederick of the Palantinate
leader of the protestant union; attempt to include calvinism as part of the german liberties; the devestation of the bohemian phase sent him into exile
Portugese Empire
predominantly located along the african and asian coastline (the exception is brazil); primary purpose- trade ports; da gama and cabral established this empire
West Africa
cottage industries were destroyed by the triangular trade; depopulation and economic crised were negative effects of the AOD; trans-saharan trade route indirectly aroused european desire to colonize this region; "middle passage" marked the exportation of this region's population
Henry VII
established the tudor dynasty in england after the battle of bosworth field
Peter the Great
russian tsar that gained acess to the baltic sea
german artist who introduced italian styles of painting in his self-portrait as well as his wood cuts such as THE ADORATION
Peace of Augsburg
identified the german princes as the most powerful group within the HRE, since only the german princes could establish either lutheranism or catholicism for their independent german states
economic group that aided in the development of northern european economy
Henry of Guise
ultra-catholic leader of the catholic league; used his influence with the french regent to exert enormous amount of power prior to his family's demise
War of Spanish Succession
prussian participation in this elevated prussia to an official kingdom by the austrian habsburgs
his "the prince" may have given future rulers a realistic guide at establishing their will: "do good when possible; do evil when necessary"
established a humanist school in mantua
the inclusion of this in the renaissance necessiated the inclusion of "humansitic values" to prevent chaos
Justification by Faith
luther's belief that salvation was by faith alone, not by works or church authority
third estate
the social class the represented 97% of the population in culture
key spanich victory over the ottoman turks; made spain the lone power of the mediterranean sea, but began the arrogance of philip II that eventually led to the demise of the spainsh
Henry III
last valois king, assassinated in 1589 by a crazed monk
prussian nobles
Table of Ranks
peter's attempt to gain control over the russian nobles by forcing them into military service
Ferdinand of Aragon
first spanish king who asserted authority in the italian wars in the 15th century
in tendants
royal officials who took local administration of government policy away from nobility
Spanish Empire
purpose- exploit gold and provide population outlet; conquistadors established this empire; predominantly located in the americas (exception is the phillipenes)
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
advisor to Louis XIV who worked to modernize the french economy by expanding infrastruscture and creating monopolies
peter's policy of modernizing russian culture to be more "acceptable" to france
the mughal empire ruled a "divided" kingdom circa 1600; hindu-islam cultural division opened this area to european colonization; rajahs were responsible for the political division of this region
penned the slogan of the age when he stated "men can do all things if they will"
Ivan the Terrible
first tsar of russia, but his killing of his son led to the time of troubles
his moveable type printing press was the gateway for merchants to deculatize society by gaining control of the european media

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