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U.S. History Ch. 21


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Cold War
The era of confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from 1946 to 1990
What was Rusia concerned with after WWII
Security- they wanted to make other countries weak
Economy- they thought capitalist countries would try to replace communism with capitalism
Why did America want to spread capitalism?
They thought capitalism was the best economic system to avoid depression, which had caused WWII
What was the first issue discussed at the Yalta Conference?
What was the issue with Poland at the Yalta Conference?
After the Russians liberated Poland, there were too groups trying to govern it: the pre-war govt, and the Russian-backed communists
What agreement was reached about Poland at the Yalta Conference?
Roosevelt and Churchill would recognize the communist Polish government, but it would include members of the prewar govt. Free elections would be held as soon as possible.
What did the Declaration of Liberated Europe say?
The people of a country have the right to chose whatever type of government they want.
Which four countries controlled Germany?
America, Great Britain, France, Russia
How did the Russians disobey the Declaration of Liberated Europe?
They forced Romania to have a Communist government, and refused to appoint more that three non-communist Poles to their 18-member government, and would not hold free elections in Poland
What was Truman's policy toward Russia?
To stand up to them and not let them have their way.
What occured at the Potsdam Conference?
America and USSR decided what to do with Germany
What was Truman's plan about Germany?
To not force reparations on Germany, make them pay it back in trade goods and products. Russia could take what they want out of their side of Germany, but let the other parts become industrialized before they are charged with reparations
Why was Stalin forced to accept the Truman's deal?
Since American troops controlled Germany's heartland, Russia would not get any reparations unless they accepted the deal
What was discussed at Potsdam
Germany, Russia's commitment to uphold the Declaration of Liberated Europe
What were Communist countries in Eastern Europe called?
Satellite nations
What was meant be the "iron curtain"
The division of social and military powers in Europe between Capitalism and Communism
What was the Long Telegram?
A long cable message explaining George Kennan views of the Soviet goals
What were Kennan's views of Soviet goals?
The Soviets' view of the world came from a sense of insecurity and fear of the West, and the struggle against Capitalism.
What did Kennan propose as a strategy to deal with the Russians?
A long-term and patient vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies. Also, contain communism through diplomatic, economic, and military actions
What happened during the crisis in Iran?
Russia refused to withdraw their troops from Iraq until America showed force.
Who was Dean Acheson
A presidential advisor who told Truman to intervene in Stalin's conquest of Turkey, because he thought they were trying to take over the middle east
What happened in Greece
Greek guerillas attacked the Greek government. Britain tried to back the govt., but ran out of money.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
A policy to aid free peoples who are resisting outside pressures. Basically, to fight communism worldwide.
What was the Marshall plan?
Gave aide to European nations whose economies were destroyed by the war, to help rebuild them.
Why was West Germany founded?
America concluded that the Soviets were trying to destroy Germany's economy, so they merged there sections with England and France to form a separate country.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Airlift?
To get food into West Berlin to keep the people there alive without starting a war.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- each country had to come to the aid of the others
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance formed by the USSR in Eastern Europe
Mao Zedong
Communist leader struggling against Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalist forces
Year the communists took over in China
Which country was the key to defending from communism in Europe
West Germany
Which country was the key to defending from communism in Asia
Why did the UN act in Korea
The Soviet UN member was not there to vote against it, since he was boycotting because of the China situtation
What port was near where the South Koreans and Americans were driven back into
What was the pocket called that S. Korean and American forces were driven into
Pusan perimeter
Where did MacArthur land in Korea
What river separates China from Korea
Yalu River
What were MacArthur's demands for Korea
Expand the war against China: a blockade of Chinese ports, use of Chiang Kai-Shek's forces, and bomb China with atomic weapons
Limited War
A war fought to achieve limited objective
the effort to secretly weaken a country and overthrow its government
Igor Gouzenko
The Russian spy who defected and told of the effort by the Soviet Union to find out about the atomic bomb
Loyalty Review Program
Screened all federal employees for communists
J. Edgar Hoover
The FBI director who wanted to hold public hearings on Communist subversion.
House Unamerican Activities Committee- formed to investigate both Communist and Facist activites in the US
Whittaker Chambers
Testified to the HUAC about several government officials that were former Communists or spies
Alger Hiss
Accused by Chambers of being a Communist, denied it and accused of lying under oath
Pumpkin papers
The papers that showed the evidence that Hiss was a communist
Lying under oath
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Members of the communist party who were charged with heading a Soviet spy ring.
Klaus Fuchs
A British scientist who admitted sending information to the Soviet Union
The project to crack the Soviet spy code
Taft-Hartley Act
Required union leaders to take oaths that they were not communist
Congress of Industrial Organizations- expelled organizations that did not remove Communist leaders for their organization
Joseph R. McCarthy
Accused people of being Communist or in communist spy rings
How did McCarthy win his election in 1946
He accused his opponent of being communistically inclined.
The Party of Betrayal
The booklet McCarthy distributed, accusing many Democrat leaders of corruptions and of protecting communists
McCarran Act was also know as
Internal Security Act
McCarran Act
Made it illegal to contribute to the establishment of communism in America. Also, Communists had many restrictions
A search for disloyalty based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears, unfounded charges
Formal disapproval
For every person killed by a nuclear blast, how many would die from radiation
Fallout shelters
Shelters built to protect one's self from an atomic bomb attack.
Matt Cvetic
Infiltrated the Communist Party in Pittsburgh and wrote a story for the Saturday Evening Post
Massive Retaliation
Threaten with nuclear weapons if a country tried to seize territory by force
Which plane could fly across continens and drop nuclear bombs anywhere in the world?
B-52 Bombers
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles- could deliver bombs anywhere in the world
Coordinated research in rocket science and space exploration
National Defense Education Act- provided funs for education and training in science, math, and foreign language
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State who defended Eisenhower's policy of building up with nuclear weapons
Willingness to go the the brink of war to force the other side to back down
Mohammed Mossadegh
Iranian prime minister who nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. He was ready to make an oil deal with the Russians, but was ousted by American-backed riots, and the pro-American Shah was put into power.
Nikita Khrushchev
Leader of Russia after Stalin died
a formal meeting of leaders from different countries to discuss issues
Military-industrial complex
The relationship between the military establishment and the defense industry

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