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An occupation that is rated high in prestige and requires extensive formal education and mastery of a defined body of knowledge beyond the grasp of laypersons. Members of many professions control licensing standards and have autonomy in their work enviro
Prestigious national organization that works closely with state departments of education to review and evaluate teacher education programs at colleges and universities.
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
The process of removing from professional status.
The special status accorded to certain occupations and not available to others.
occupational prestige
A procedure for resolving disagreements between employers and employees through negotiation. For teachers, such negotiation pertains to many aspects of their work and salary as well as their relationship with students, supervisors, and the community.
collective bargaining
A state or national commission that permits educators to set professional standards and minimal requirements of competency.
professional practice board
A national nonprofit organization that issues certificates to teachers who meet its standards for professional ability and knowledge.
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
The practice of inducting persons into a profession through carefully supervised stages.
mediated entry
Contiued education or training of a school district's teaching staff. Such programs often stress teacher input as well as collaboration between the school district and a college or university.
staff development
A plan that rewards teachers partially or primarily on the basis of performance or objective standards.
merit pay
A system of school governance in which many important decisions are made at the level of the individual school rather than by the superintendent or board of education. This system usually gives teachers substantial decision-making responsibility.
school-based management
The largest organization that represents teachers in the United States.
National Education Association (NEA)
The second largest organization that represents teachers in America. It often is associated with union representation.
American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
The organization of parents and teachers in a local school community.
parent-teacher group
The organization of parents, teachers, and students to promote the welfare of children and youth in a particular school community.
Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
The process beginning at infancy by which a human being acquires the culture of his or her society
Chinese philosopher and government official who devised an ethical system still in use in China today and in other parts of the world.
A system of social stratification traditionally used in India.
caste system
Members of the highest caste and the primary recipients of education in ancient India.
One of the key religious texts used in Hinduism; the focus of ancient Indian education.
Members of a group of itinerant educators in ancient Greece during the period from 470 to 370 B.C. who emphasized rhetoric, public speaking, and other practical skills. Their approach contrasts with the speculative philosophers Plato and Aristotle.
The theory and practice of public speaking, declamation, and oratory in ancient Greece. During the Middle Ages it tended to emphasize written discourse as well as speaking. Along with grammar and logic, rhetoric was part of the trivium of the liberal art
An educational method attributed to the Greek philosopher Socrates by which the teacher encourages the student's discovery of truth by asking leading and stimulating questions.
Socratic method
The recalling or remembering of ideas that Plato asserted were present latently in the mind. Through skilled questioning, the teacher stimulates students to bring these ideas to consciousness.
Plato's most systematic philosohpical statement on politics and education. Using the format of dialogues, it portrays a perfect city rule by philosopher-kings according to the principle of justice
Plato's Republic
Religion founded by Mohammed (569-632); currently practiced in many Middle Eastern countries and in many other countries.
The intellectual and educational approach used by educators in medieval universities, involving the study of theological and philosophical authorities.
The leading educational theory and general method during the Renaissance. It refers to the study of the classical Greek and Roman texts with an emphasis on their humanistic (human centered) meaning.
classical humanism
Primary institutions where instruction was in the language commonly spoken by the students. These schools can be contrasted with schools where instruction was in a classical language such as Greek or Latin.
vernacular schools
The traditional European pattern of separate primary schools for the masses of population and preparatory and secondary schools for the upper socioeconomic classes.
dual-track system.

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