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Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Ibn Battuta (1304-1369)
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reeward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. Hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices. It spread along the trade routes to Southeast Asia.
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-inlaw Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since 873 A.D. , he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time.
Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel (1753-1811)
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices.
A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbol-forms were developed for apid composition on other media, such as papyrus.
Nazi's program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecudor to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
The geological era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago.
Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia.
indentured servant
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical period who fought in the close-packed Phalanx formation. Hoplite armies--militias composed of middle and upper class citizens supplying their own equpiment--were for centuries superior to all other military forces.
humanists (Renaissance)
European schlars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammer, rhetoric poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.
Husain, Saddam (1937)
President of Iraq from 1979 until overthrown by an American-led invasion in 2003. Waged war on Iran from 1980 to 1988. His invasion of Kuwait in 1990 was repulsed in the Persian Gulf War in 1991.
Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945)
Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers' party--The Nazis--in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.
A "secondary" or peripheral" khan based in Persia. The Il'khans' khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq.
horse collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animals neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles.
import-substitution industrialization
An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. It proved successful for a time but could not keep up with technological advances in Europe and North America.
Indian civil service.
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians.
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and militarypower based on chariot forces, the Hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt for control of Syria-Palestine before falling to unidentified attackers.
Herzl, Theodore (1860-1904)
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
House of Burgesses
Elected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participations in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, it appealed increasingly to the poor, and it organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence.
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occuring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communications.

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