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page five part two


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Dutch West India Company (1621-1794)
Tradinc company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
German physicist who developed the theory of relatvity, which states that ime, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1983) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
El Alamein
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the "Desert Fox") in 1942-1943.
Dias, Bartolomeu (1450-1500)
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa form the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.
An elaborate display of political power and wealth in British India in the nineteenth century, ostensibly in imitation of the pageantry of the Mughal Empire.
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with represenatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society; the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates Gneral in 1789 led to the French revolution.
English Civil War (1642-1649)
A conflict over royal versus Parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the English Bill of Rights of 1689, ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy.
division of labor
A manufacturing tecnique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josia Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods.
A Greek word meaning "dispersal," used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughout the world.
A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s.
Diagne, Blaise (1872-1934)
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly. During World War I, in exchange for promises to give French citizenship to Senegalese, he helped recruit Africans to serve in the French army. After the war, he led a movement to abolish forced labor inAfrica.
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.
Edison, Thomas (1847-1931)
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and that were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to staff the imperial civil service.
Trechniques for ascertaining the future or the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena such as in early China, the cracks on oracle bones r, in ancient Greece, the flight of birds through sectors of the sky.
a privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation.

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