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Child Development Test #3


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What is Aggression
** two characteristics necessary:
*Behavior must be at a high intensity or rate (hitting; noncompliance)
* behavior must be intentional (you can't determine it, youo have to infer it from other things)
Freud's term used to describe what he considered to be an inborn, aggressive, and destructive instinct.
Ethologists' view of aggression
- basic part of human nature
- Lorenz described it as a fighting instinct triggered by certain "eliciting" cues in the environment
Behavioral Definition of Aggression
-favored by behavioral/ learning thoerists
-any action that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism (Buss)
Intentional Definition of Aggression
- more recently favored by learning theorists
- any action intended to harm or injure another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment
Subdivisions of Aggression
- Hostile aggression: aggressive acts for which the perpetrator's major goal is to harm or injure a victim
- Instrumental Aggression: aggressive acts or which the perpetrator's main goal is to gain access to objects, space, or privileges
- people often disagree abut whether certain acts are truly aggressive; still, the distinction is worth making as they often have different developmental antecedents and can have very different implications for the future and social adjustment
Aggression as a Social Judgement
- aggression is to no small extent a social judgement that we make about the seemingly injurous behaviors that we observe or experience, and what they mean to us
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
-he proposed that humans are driven by a destructive instinct, thanatos, which he considers responsible for the generation of aggression impulses
- death instinct
- aggressive urges must be discharged periodically to prevent them from reaching dangerous levels (work. play or fighting. etc.)
Lorenz's Ethological Theory of Aggression
- a fighting instinct triggered by certain eliciting cues in the environment
- believes that aggressive urges build until relieved by an appropriate releasing stimulus
- serves a basic evolutionary purpose to ensure the survival of the species
-species have evolved various "instinctual inhibitions" that prevent us from killing members of our own species - humans lack inhibitions
Critique of Instinct Theory
- why are some societies more aggressive than others?
- no neuropsychological evidence that the body accumulaltes aggressive energy
- no evidence of lacking inhibitions, rather evidence that we do have them based on our capacity for empathy
Ethological Studies of Children's Play Groups
-even 3-5 yr. olds form reasonably stable dominance hierarchies
- function of these is to minimize aggression
frustration/ aggression hypothesis (learning theory)
- early learning theory of aggression, holding that frustration triggers aggression and that all aggressive acts can be traced to frustration (Dollard)
- however, we know now that frustration does not invariable result in aggression (anger instead maybe)
Berkowitz's Revised Frustration/ Anger Theory
- contends that frustration leads to anger and creates only the "readiness for aggressive acts"
-other causes of anger such as being attacked/provoked or previously acquired aggressive habits, may heighten a person's readiness to aggress
- views aggressive behavior as steeming from a combo of internal fources and external stimuli
- aggressive cues hypothesis
Berkowitz's Aggressive Cues Hypothesis
-his notion that the presence of stimuli (an object or event) previosly associated with aggression can evoke aggressive responses from an angry individual
- true: kids ho played with aggressive toys were more thematically aggressive and inappropriately aggressive with peers who played with neutral toys
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
- describes how aggressive responses are acquired through direct experience (if they are reinforced for aggressive behavior) and observational learning (children attend to and retain in memory the aggressive responses thy see others commit- think Bobo doll) and are maintained to become habits
- stresses cognitive influences on aggression
- habits are maintained b/c they are(1)instrumental to the satisfaction of other goals (2)useful as a means of terminating others' noxious behaviors, (3)socially sanctioned by aggressive peers, (4) even intrinsically rewarding for the aggressor
- also claimed (1) any form of arousal can promote aggression(exercise, erotica) and (2) our cognitive interpretation of harmdoing is important in determining our reactions than is the amount of objective harm done
Dodge's Social Information Processing Theory
-extends Bandura's cognitive emphasis, describing 6 information processing phases that children may display as they interpret harm done and formulate a response
- explains how children usually use aggressive vs. nonaggressive means to solvng social problems
- children have characteristic styles of processing cues at each step and these correlate with individual differences in behavior (based on their mental state - meaning past social experiences, social expectancies, ability to regulate emotions, and knowledge of social rules
-proactive vs. nonactive aggressors
Six Steps of Dodge's Social Information Processing Model
When harmed under ambiguous circumstances, they:
1- Encode social cues
2- Interpret social cues (did he mean to do that?)
3- Formulate a social goal for resolving incident (how am I going to hande this)
4- Generate problem solving strategies
5- Evaluate the likely effectiveness of stratagies and select a resonse
6-select and eneact a response
Proactive Aggressors (Dodge)
- highly aggressive children who find aggressive acts easy to perform and who rely heavily on aggression as a means of solving social problems or achieving other personal objectives
- * mental state includes:
expectation that positive outcomes will result from use of force, feel capable of dominating others, likely to formulate an instrumental goal, consciously decide that an aggressive response is best in achieving the goal even though they know other ways, see aggression positively and as socially normative
-*structure of environment good as Tx
Reactive Aggressors (Dodge)
- children who display high levels of hostile, retaliatory aggression because they overattribute hostile intents of others and can't control their anger long enough to seek nonaggressive solutions to real problems
-they have a hostile attribution bias: tendency to view harm done under ambiguous circumstances as having stemmed from hostile intent on the part of the harmdoer and become very angry and quickly retaliate in a hostile, aggressive manner
-*they don't consider consequences of aggressive acts nor do they generate nonaggressive solutions to problems
-*frequent negative interactions with peers, teachers, and adults and often become disliked
Etiology and Interventions for Reactive Aggressors
-* these kids come from environments where they are being victimized, their family is being victimized, etc. and everyone around them interprets these things as hostile, so that is what they learn
-*Tx: cognitive mediated intervention, teaching them how to interpret others actions and how to problem solve
When do you first see signs of aggression in a child?
- instrumental aggression emerges by the end of the first year as infants begin to quarrel wuth siblings and peers over toys and other possessions
- these are conflicts - circumstances in which 2 oe more kids have incompatible needs, desires, or goals - and can actually be adaptive so kids can learn how to achieve their means without using force
Developmental Trends of Aggression in Preschool
*- 1. unfocused temper tantrums deminish during the preschool period and are uncommon after age 4
- 2. Incidence of forceful, oppositional behaviors (aggresion) peaks b/w 2-3 and very gradually declines over the preschool period (by age 5 occuring less and not lasting as long)
*the tendency to retaliate in response to anger or frustrations increases after age 3 (they start to get that they can fight back)
3.Age differences: 2-3 yr olds are likely to bite, hit, or kick an adversary while older kids will taunt and tease tattle, or taunt. 2-3 yr olds aggression is usually instrumental behavior (if not - huge red flag); parents are most often target(instigators) while in older children, although they also show aggression for instrumental reasons, they are now increasingly hostile, trying to harm someone, with their aggressive outbursts
Developmental Trends in Aggression in Grade School
- * physical aggression declines and oppositional behavior usually minimizes or eliminated by age 8
- * except hostile aggression, especially among boys (slight increase with age) - why? b/c older children are becoming prpoficient role takers and are better able to infer motives and intentions of others and will retaliate when they are hostile (Hartup); also, they are reluctant to condemn retaliatory aggression, aggressive acts elicited by real or imagined provocations (fighting back acceptable)
- this is the typical time of referral for conduct problems (particularly boys around age 8)
Perpetrators and Victims of Childhood Aggression
-4-7% who remain aggressive and bully 10-20% of classmates
-boys more likely to be bullies and to be victimized than girls
- boys more physically bullied and girls more psychologically bullied
-bullies more likely to smoke, drink alcohol, and be poor students
-bullies hang out with other aggressive peers that may egg them on or assist in bullying
passive victims and provocative victims (of aggression)
-passive victims: socially withdrawn and anxious children whom bullies torment, even though they appear to have done nothing to trigger such abuse
- provocative victims: restless, hot-tempered, and oppositional children who are victimized because they are disliked and often irritate their peers (less of these than passive ones)
- victimized kids will continue to be victimized, especially if they don't stick up for themselves and don't have any friends
-they are also at risk for a several adjustment problems such as lonliness, anxiety, depression, further erosion of self-esteem and dislike/ avoidance of school
Developmental Trends in Aggression in Adolescence
- * continued trend of decreased incidence of fighting and other aggressive acts
- * Exception: the most violent show an increase in aggression; covert aggression (property destruction, theft, vandalism, truancy) may increase
- * of these, and even smaller group will continue into adulthood and become anti-social (these will also have a decrease in aggression at age 50)
Stability in Aggression
- * aggresion is a VERY stable attribute
- chronic persistence trajectory: growth curve of children who are highly aggressive early in life and who display the same high (or escalating) levels of aggression throughout childhood and adolescence
-high level desister trajectory: growth curve of children who are highly aggressive early in life but who gradually become less aggressive throughout childhood and adolescence
-moderate-level desister trajectory: growth curve of children who are moderately aggressive early in life but who gradually become less aggressive throughout childhood and adolescence
no-problem trajectory: growth curve of children who are low in aggression throughout childhood and adolescence
-late-onset trajectory: growth curves of people who become more aggressive, usually for a lilited time, furing adolescence or young adulthood, after having been relatively non-aggressive during childhood
Gender Differences in Aggression
-* equivelent levels of stability
-* males are overtly more aggressive than females
-*females are often found to exceed boys in relational aggression, such as snubbing, exclusion, withdrawing acceptance, or spreading rumors aimed at damaging someone's self-esteem, friendships, or social status
-*males have an earlier age of onset and greater persistence of antisocial behaviors
-* males are more prone to violence and more likely to engage in repeated avts of violence
-* in males, the earlier the age of onset, the greater the liklihood of continuing antisocial behavior later in life
Biological Viewpoint of Gender Differences
-Maccoby and Jacklin:
- say that 4 reasons point to biological factors contributing heavily to sex differences including, males being more aggressive than females, early sex differences at age 2, males in closest species are more aggressive, testosterone
-studies with testosterone found that aggessive males have higher testosterone levels than non-aggressive males, but among males close to their parents, no differences were found (only for boys who were not close to their parents); also, winning shows increase in levels while losing shows decrease
-bottom lone, it is not strictly genetic
Social Learning Viewpoint of Gender Differences
-very young boys are not always more aggressive than girls unti age 2-3 leaving plenty of time for social influences
-parents play rougher with boys and reactive more negatively to aggressive acts by girls than boys
- boys often receive toys that encourage acting out aggressive themes
-preschool years, boys attribute aggression as part of their gender schema
-by middle childhood, boys expect aggressive acts to get them tangible benefits and elicit less disapproval from parents than girls would get
Biosocial (Interactive) Viewpoint of Gender Differences in Aggression
-believe that sex linked (biological) factors interact with social-environmental influences to promote sex differences in aggression
-biological predispositions are likely to affect the behavior of caregivers, which in tern, will elicit certain reactions from the child and influence activities and interests that the child is likely to display
cultural and subcultural influences on aggression
- a person's aggressive inclinations will depend, in part, on the cultural and subcultural settings in which he/she is raised.
-due in part to SES differences in parenting, and to a greater liklihood of living in a high risk neighborhood that is low in collective efficacy (well connected neighborhoods that monitor events of others and maintain public order), kids from disadvantaged backgrounds are more aggressive and display higher rates of delinquency than their middle class peers
Pathways to antisocial behavior
*-late vs. early starters (Patterson)
*-life-course-persistent vs. adolescence-limited (Moffitt)
*-Childhood-Onset Type vs. Adolescent-Onset Type (DSM)
*- they are all the same thing -> one pathway to aggressive behavior
Patterson's Early Starters
-*Early Starters:
-worse off than late starters
-early family interactions play a major role; parents inadvertently reinforce antisocial behaviors and fail to punish them (training them)
-little opportunity to acquire prosocial abilities (Moffit)
-Higher comorbidity with ADHD and if ADHD is present, there will be greater physical aggression, earliest onset of conduct disorder, and greater persistence of anti-social behavior
-goodness of fit needed here
Patterson's Late Starters
-not wired in
-delinquency begins in adolescence and is considered exxageration of age normal trends
-psychopathology is not evident
-tend to have more normative interaction with peers
-less likely to have persistent conduct or antisocial personality disorders
-less likly to drop out of school
Causes of Aggression
*1. Heritability
*2. Ecological Factors
*3. Mental Processes
*4. Peer Influences
*Antisocial behavior is not biologically determined
*Aggression is a trait not directly linked to any biological process
*varios forms of antisocial behavior linked to biological vulnerabilities that compromise adaptive functioning
*the following can be wired in and predispose you to becoming antisocial
*executive functioning deficits -> impulsivity, verbal and language performance deficits, and failure to learn from punishment situations
*needs to be treated ASAP
*Ecological Factors (Risks)
*Risk factors include poverty, large family, lack of parental education, family loss-illness-stress, inadequate houseing, criminal victimization, high residential mobility= the effects are cumulative
*Ecological Risk Factors (Family)
*Patterson says aggression begins in the home
*some children are "trained" in the effectiveness of antisocial behaviors BEFORE STARTING SCHOOL (by age 3, interactions b/w parent and child determine if kids will have later probs in life)
*Coercive Family Process (Patterson)
Coercive Family Process*
*1.Mismatches in temperment b/w parent and child (more - things said than + ones)
*2.Poor child parenting skills (inconsistent, too many demands, delayed physical punishments)
*3.differences in adversive exchanges (1:45sec in aggressive;1:3min normal)
*4.coercive behaviors of child are aversive for parent, thus parents drom demands, which increases liklihood child will use coercive tactics in future (negative reinforcement)
Coercive Family Process Scenerio*
-Aversive intrusion of a family member on the child's activites
-child counteracts (whines, cries, etc.)
-adult stops scolding and stops demands for compliance, thus rewarding child for aversive behavior
-reinforcement to parent for giving in:child stops counterattack(-reinforcement)
What happens with reciprocity of coercive attacks? *
*one or more family members is labeled as "deviant" (or parent called "bad" or family labeled dysfunctional)
*lowered self-esteem of famiy members
*anger pervasive in home
*disrupted family communication b/c more anger makes fam. members more aversive w/ each other and they don't want to interact
*in these fams:2-3x more likely mom will get an adversive response to a request and moms are less likely to reinforce positives and prosocial responses, so kids don't use them
*Mental Processes
*Antisocial behavior correlates with low IQ and overall academic failure - they don't start out dumb, ut they are missing out on instruction due to behavior
*Aversive behavior is likely to engender rejection by teacher
*social and cognitive egocentrism can relate to the dev't of antisocial behavior (no role-taking skills)
*Cognitive deficiencies (failure to use verbal mediators) to regulate behavior is often observed (talking to themselves)
*think Dodge's social info. processing theory
*Peer Influences
*aggressive kids can be rejected by their peers (typically, but not all)
*peer rejection contributes to subsequent probs of adaptation - hanging out alone is a red flag
*association w/ devient peers leads to increased delinquency (stopping will cause decrease)
*Gang involvement increases liklihood of committing violent acts
*reactive aggressors tend to have perpetuated aggression
(back to book stuff on family influences)
Parental Child Rearing Practices and Aggression
*cold and rejecting parents who apply Power-Assertion Discipline where the parent relies on his superior power (spankings, losing privleges)to modify or control child's behavior, in an erratic fashion and often permit kid to aggressively express themselves are likely to raise hostile kids
*parents who rely on physical coercion to discipline aggression (hit, kick, shove) will also raise aggressive kids
*it is however a 2-way street
Parental Conflicy and Children's Aggression
*kids extrememly distressed when parents fight and increase the liklihood that kids will have hostile, aggressive interactions with others
*especially if (1)parents show a pattern of attacking, then withdrawing form each other so kids don't see resolution and (2) parental battles prevent parents from being warm and loving to kids
*kids likely to become proactive aggressors (when they are not being abused)
Coercive Home Environment
-a home in which family members often annoy one another and use aggressive or otherwise antisocial tactics as a method of coping with these aversive experiences
Individual Differences in Response to Coercive Parenting
-tempermentally impetuous, uninhibited, or fearless kids who are either callous, unemotional, and nonempathetic and/or deficient at regulating - emotions are at a greater risk of higher levels of aggression and behavior ptobs when they experience aloof, power assertive parenting
*they may never learn to sympathize with others or acquire internalized moral controls
Coercive Home Environments as Contributors to Chronic Delinquency
*development of kids' hostile attribution biases, defiant aggressive behaviors, and gen. lack of self-restraint which by mid childhood can cause kids to be rejected by peers and teachers and to founder in school
*poor outcomes may cause parents to become less invested and thus less closely monitor their kids
*rejection from peers and being placed in grps w/ other academically deficient kids gives them ample exposure to other delinquent kids - by 11-14 deviant peer cliques more likely to have sexual misconduct, drugs, dropping out of school, etc.
-worse if kid gets in a gang
Gender diffferences in chronic persistence developmental path
-gender gap is narrowing
-males still dominate violent crime stats
-girls are about as likely to be involved in larcenies, sexual misconduct, and rug abuse
-girls more likely to be arrested for running away from home and prostitution
relationships between antisocial males and females
-males tend to pair up with females (both antisocial)
-at risk for hostile, abusive relationships
-inclined to make early entry into parenthood, a role they are not prepared for, and become coercive parents themselves transmitting antisocial behavior from one generation to the next
Family interventions?
-some may work in younger kids, but once in adolescence, usually unsuccessful
-prevention methods key and would (1) teach parenting skills (2)foster kids' social skills to keep them from being rejected by peers (3)provide academic remediation
Helping Children and Parents who are "Out of Control"
1.Don't give in to child's coercive behavior
2.Don't escalate your own coercion when child become coercive
3.control kid's coercion w/ time out procedure those of the kid's behavior that are most irritating and then establish a point system in which the child can earn credits for acceptable conduct and lose them for bad behavior
-with older kids, behavioral contracts with deviations being punished (kids should have a say in this contract)
Precision Commands *
*tell kid to do something
*give him 5 seconds
*don't do it, get closer and say, "you NEED to ___" (training on the word need)
*still don't do it, 100% of the time they must have consequences
Best Tx for a conduct disordered kid
Teaching them to read
-catharsis hypothesis: notion that aggresive urges are reduced when people witness or commit real or symbolic acts of aggression
-Cathartic Technique: a strategy for reducing aggression by encouraging kids to vent their anger or frustrations on inanimate objects
*doesn't work
Creating nonaggressive environments
*removal of aggressive toys
*ample space for vigorous play eliminating accidents that could escalate into full blown hostilities
*provide enough toys so that there is not a shortage of play materials
Helping reactive and proactive aggressors
-Proactive aggressors can benefit when adults rely on control procedures such as time out and the incompatible-response technique, which teaches them that aggression doesn't pay and that nonaggressive means of problem solving are better ways to acheive their objectives
-reactive aggressors (and others): social-cognitive interventions that help them regulate their anger and become more skilled at empathizing and role-taking, becoming less inclined to attribute hostile intents to others
What is the key behavioral feature of aggression? *
*behavioral control problems put children in position of being continually reprimanded
*may take form of high fear threshold or low anxiety, high risk choices
*it may be that there is no urge to do antisocial things, but that being continuously reprimanded perpetuates worse behaviors
Second path to reactive aggression is related to ___
*early abuse
*social rejection by peers
Neuropsychological deficits
*Neuropsychological predisposition to deficits that undermine language and executive functioning (responses) -> deficits traced to physical abuse, nutrition deprivation, lack of stimulation, maternal drug use, birth complications
*these deficits make it more difficult to attain language, this more likely to use physical means to resolve problems
*Conclusions *
Antisocial Consequences
*less verbal kids resort to physical means to resolve conflicts
*Attentional deficits minimize reflections on the consequences of behavior
*kids with language problems have difficulty with school curriculum (if you can't understand what's going on in school, you act out)
Bottom Line***
*Language deficits
*kids being taught aggressive behavior at home
Start of Chapter 11-
The Family

Socialization within the family
*socialization in the process by which a person's standards, skills, motives, attitudes, and behaviors CHANGE to conform to those regarded as desirable and appropriate for his/her present and future role in any particular society (constantly changes)
-family is the primary agent of socialization
What is a family?
-two or more persons, related by birth, marriage, adoption, or choice, who have emotional ties and responsibilities to each other
The family as a social system
-the complex network of relationships, interactions, and patterns of influence that characterize a family with three or more members
-similar to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory
-children influence behavior and parenting practices
-families are networks of reciprocal relationships and alliances that are always changing and affected by community and culture
Traditional Nuclear Family
-a family unit consisting of a wife/mother, husband/ father, and their dependent children
Direct Effects
-instances in which any pair of family members affects and is affected by each other's behavior
Indirect, or third party, effects
Instances in which the relationship b/w 2 people in any family is modified by the behavior or attitudes of a third family member
-circumstances in which parents mutually support each other and function as a cooperative parenting team
extended family household
-a group of blood relatives from more than one nuclear family (for example, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews) who live together forming a household
Social Changes Affecting Family Life Today
*greater # of single adults
*later marriages
*decline in childbearing
*more women in workforce
*more divorces
*single-parent families
*blended or reconstituted families
*multigenerational families
*more families living in poverty
Forms of Parental Involvement*
*Interaction: direct contact with the child; there and having face to face interaction
*Availability: potential interaction; you are there if they need you
*Responsibility: role parent takes in ensuring that child os taken care of
Parental Involvement
Mom vs. Dad
*Fathers spend less time with infants and children which is a multi-nation finding and multi-ethnic finding
*Fathers spend less time in care-giving
*Fathers more available for play activities and physically arousing games (not a cross cultural finding in places such as China, Sweden, and Malaysia)
Two Major Dimensions of Parenting (Erickson)
1.Acceptance/Responsiveness: amount of support and affection a parent displays
-Emotionally Available<-> Univolved/Hostile
-hostile parenting leads to anxious, less controlled kids with low self-esteem
2.Demandingness/Control: amount of regulation or supervision parents undertake with their children
-Controlling/Demanding <-> Few Demands/Rarely Exerts Control
-overcontrolled=deprives kid opportunity to meet standards on their own
-undercontrolled=children don't learn behavioral standards
Guidelines for Dimensions
*set standards appropriate to child's age/ developmental level; show child how to meet standards and reward them for meeting demands
*reinforce standards consistantly; increase child's compliance
*application of an aversive stimulus or removal of a positive stimulus to regulate behavior
*Power Assertive Methods
*short term = effective
*long term = not effective
*kids become fearful of parents, less likely to internalize social rules, and may imitate aggressive behavior
Baumrind's 4 parenting styles
Authoritative Parenting
-flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control while allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challenges and obligations
**high warmth and moderate restrictiveness
**associated w/ high self esteem, adaptability, competence, internalized control, popularity with peers, low levels of antisocial behavior
Authoritarian Parenting
-a restrictive pattern of parenting in which adults set many rules for their kids, expect strict obedience, and rely on power rather than reason to elicit compliance
*rigid, power assertive, harsh, unresponsive to child's needs
*children have little control over their environment
*can result in kids who are unhappy, conflicted, irritable; lower grades; lower self-esteem; less social skills
Permissive(Laissez Fair) Parenting
-a pattern of parenting in which otherwise accepting adults make few demands of thier children and rarely attempt to control their behavior
*reasonably affectionate, but excessively lax and inconsistent with discipline
*associated with: uncontrolled; impulsive behavior; lower grades; easily frustrated
-aggressive behavior; bossy and self centered, dependent, low social skills
Uninvolved/ Indifferent Parenting
-pattern of parenting that is both aloof (or even hostile) and overpermissive, almost as if parents neither cared about their children or what they may become
*characterized by neglect and a lack of involvement
*seen with depressed or highly stressed parents
*associated with: disrupted attachment in infancy; impulsivity; aggression; noncompliance; moodiness; low self-esteem
Why is authoritative so good?
-warm and accepting communicating a sense of caring concern that motivates their kids to comply
-exercises control in a rational way, carefully explaining thier view and considering the child's view with an outcome of committed compliance
-tailor their demands to the child's ability to control his conduct (realistic demands), allowing the child autonomy and showing them that they are capable
Determinants of Parenting Styles*
*Child Characteristics: more active, less responsive, more noncompliant kids elicit more - parenting
*Personal Resources: knowledge, ability, and motivation to be a responsible caregiver
*Social Support: more support associated w/ increased sensitivity to kid's needs
*SES: different parenting styles and different parenting interactions
Cultural Context of Parenting Styles*
*no universal parenting style
*Euro-American: emphasize independence, competitiveness, and persuit of indiv. goals
*Native/Hispanic American: maintain close ties to family; require calm/ proper behaviors; teach strong respect for others
*Asian-American: stress self discipline; more controlling/ authouritarian
*African American: demand strict obedience; often use coercive forms (adaptive in some settings)
Parent-Child Interactions*
*face to face give kids opportunities to learn, rehearse, and refine social skills necessary to interact with others outside the family
*style of interaction linked to aggression, acnievement, and moral development
*fam. interaction patterns associated with current and future peer relationships
*fathers have a unique and independent contribution to social behavior
Parents as Managers of kid's social lives*
*monitoring of social activities (friends, activities, settings); lack of this leads to delinquency and antisocial behavior
*Perents interface b/w kids and institutional settings: allows access to wider range of activities and provides more chances to practice prosocial skills; gender and SES differences in interfacing
Behavioral Control vs. Psychologicanl Control
-Behavioral Control: attempts to regulate a child's conduct through firm discipline and monitoring of his/her conduct
-well behaved kids who don't become delinquent
-Psychological Control: attempts to regulate child's conduct by such psychological tactics as withholding affection and/or inducing shame or guilt
-anxiety, depression, hanging with bad kids, antisocial conduct
Parent Effects Model vs. Child Effects Model
-Parent EM: parents (especially moms) are believed to influence their kids rather than vice versa
-Child EM: children believed to influence their parents
What is the correct model of Effects?
Transactional Model: parents and children effect each other reciprocally
Family Distress Model (SES differences)
-Conger's model of how economic distress affects family dynamics and developmental outcomes
Acculturation Stress (ethnic differences)
-anxiety or uneasiness that new residents may feel upon attempting to assimilate a new culture and its traditions
No-nonsense parenting
A mixtire of authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles that is associated with favorable outcomes in African American Families
the capacity to make decisions independently, to serve as one's own source of emotional strength, and to otherwise manage one's life tasks without depending on others for assistance; an important developmental task of adolescence
Quest of Automomy
- parent/child relationships are renegotiated as adolescents begin to seek autonomy.
-although family conflict escalates during this time, adolescents are likely to become appropriately autonomous if their parents willingly grant them more freedom, explain the rules and restrictions that they impose, rely more on behavioral control than psychological control, and continue to be loving and supporting guides
Sibling Relationships*
*by preschool, siblings spend more time together than with parents
*impact on older child: withdrawal or regressive behavior; distress about sharing parental attention; may take on parental role with new sibling; fathers more involved with older child
*sibling relationship pattern established early and remains stable
When are sibling relationships better?*
*siblings are same gender
*neither is tempermentally emotional
*perception of being treated equally
*improves as younger sibling approaches adolescence
*often mirrors the parents' relationship (good relationship = better b/w sibs and vice versa)
What can parents do to help sibling relationships?*
*be = in affection, response, and caring
*care for each other
*realize that sibs will fight sometimes b/c kids have limited social skills
sibling rivalry
the spirit of competition, jealousy, and resentment that may arise b/w 2 or more siblings
Changes in Family Systems when a new baby arrives
- mom typically devotes less warm and playful attention to older child which may cause child to respond by becoming more difficult and less securely attached (particularly if over age 2)
*sibling rivalry can be minimized if 1st born has secure relationships w/ both parents b4 baby arrives and continues to enjoy close ties afterwards
-maintaining routines
-letting older child help take care of baby
Birth Order* effects on parenting
*First Borns: lots of enthusiasm, little practical experience; high expectations; more affection, more punitive
*Later Borns: more realistic expectations; more relaxed in discipline
Birth Order * effects on children
*First Borns: higher IQ, more likely go to college, and more willing to comply with adult requests
*Later Borns: less concerned w/ pleasing adults; more popular w/ peers; more innovative
*Only children: more successful in school; higher IQ, leadership, autonomy, and maturity; similar results in China
Functions of Siblings
-Emotional Support: as infants, later confide in and protect each other (more than w/ parents); and help provide buffer if rejected by peers
-As Models: teaching younger sibs new skills; older kids profit too scoring higher on academic aptitude tests than peers who have not tutored
-Social-Cog. Understanding
*Socialization: chances to practive conflict resolution, social skills, and interaction styles
Adoptive Families
-adoptees display more emotional and learning problems than biological children do
-still, adoption is a highly satisfactory arrangement for most adoptive parents and their adopted kids
-adoptees are often more satisfied with their family lives in open adoption systems that permit them to learn their biological roots
-same goes for transracially adoptees
Donor Insemination Families
-process by which a fertile woman conceives w/ the aid of sperm from an unknown donor
-these children are well adjusted, on average, as children raised by two biological parents
Gay and Lesbian Families
-most have kids through previous heterosexual marriages, although some have been adopted or conceived through donor insemination
-just as effective parents as heterosexual parents
-kids tend to be well adjusted and overwhelmingly heterosexual in orientation
Marital Conflict* (Pre-divorce)
*series of events that affect the family
*direct effects on kids are increased hostile and aggressive interactions w/ sibs and peers; anxiety; depression; externalizing conduct disorders
*indirect effects on kids are undermining ability of caregivers to display warmth and sensitivity affecting quality of parent/child relationship
*kids in strife-ridden homes will often fare better in long run if parents divorce
Divorce: Impact of Parenting Style *
*mothers: increased anxiety and stress can lead to use of more coercive methods
*fathers: less time spent with kids may lead to permissive and indulging styles
Divorce: Impact on Children*
*reactions vary by age, gender, and temperment
*preschool and early grade school kids: visible signs of distress; may feel guilty or responsible for it
*older kids/adolescents: better understanding; may withdraw from family and become more involved with delinquent peers
*more visibly - impact for boys - noncompliant/ behavior problems
*girls may have more covert stress
*most children successfully adjust: 75-80%
Long term reactions to divorce
-even well adjusted kids may show some lingering aftereffects up to 20 yrs after divorce
-common source of dissatisfaction is perceived loss of closeness w/ parents, especially w/ dads
-more likely to fear their own marriages will be unhappy (which may be true)
-kids in stable single parent homes better adjusted than those in conflict ridden two parent homes
Factors that Make Divorce Easier*
*adequate financial support
*adequate parenting by custodial parent
*social and emotional support from non-custodial parent
*regular contact with non-custodial parent
*additional social support (peers, support groups)
*minimal additional stressors
Remarriage and Blended Families Stats *
*after divorce, they will be a single parent family for 5 years on average
*2/3 of divorced men and women remarry
Blended Families: Mom plus Stepfather*
*preadolescent boys benefit from warm, involved stepfather
*preadolescent girls have trouble adjusting to remarriage
*strategy for stepdads: show interest in kids, but don't encroach on existing relationships
*for moms: be careful to continue time and affection with kids
Blended Families: Dad plus Stepmother*
*initially more disruptive than adding stepdad
*girls typically have more difficulty adjusting especially when in close contact w/ biological mom
*noncustodial moms are more likely than noncustodial dads to stay involved which may interfere w/ stepmother establishing close relationships
When do Fathers get custody?*
*children need stricter discipline
*children are very close to father
Outcomes of Blended Families*
*Having 2 caring adults is beneficial to kids AND adults
*hardest time adjusting to blended families is in pre to early adolescence: 1/3 of kids disengage from fam increasing risk of delinquency, sexual misconduct, and dropping out of school
*2nd marriages more likely to fail than 1st ones - very disruptive for kids
Complex Stepparent Home
-Family consisting of two married (or cohabitating) adults, each whom has at least one biological child living at home
*both parents tend to show Ownness Effect which kids often pick up on and remain more distant from step parent and siblings
Ownness Effect
tendency of parents in complex stepparent homes to favor and be more involved w/ their biological children than with their stepchildren
Simple Stepparent Home
family consisting of a parent, his or her biological children, and a stepparent
Maternal Employment
-often associated with good outcomes such as self-reliance, sociability, competent intellectual and academic performances, and less stereotyped view of gender differences, particularly when a mom's work induces warm supportive fathers to become more involved in their kids' lives
Day Care?
-one of the strongest supports working parents could hope for is stimulating day care for their child, a support system that is woefully inadequate in the US compared to other nations
Latch key/ Self-care kids
-large #s of US grade school kids whose moms work must care for themselves after school
-when monitored from a distance by authoritative parents, these kids fare well
-risks greater for lower SES kids
-how kids spend their time is crucial; homework and chores better than "hanging out"
-leaving kids younger than 8-9 is bad
-Afterschool care is becoming more common in US
Types of Child Abuse*
*Physical Abuse: assault leading to injuries; deliberate attempts to hurt a child (unrelated to discipline)
*Sexual Abuse: fondling, oral-genital contact, intercourse, other sexual/sexualized behaviors
*Psychological Abuse: ridicule, scorn, rejection, threats, intimidation, humiliation; creating an environment of terror for the child
Other Types of Abuse*
*Neglect: failure to provide food, clothing, medical care, or educational opportunity; chronic disregard of emotional needs of a child; failure to protect child from ongoing abuse
*Exposure to Violence: witnessing parental aggression; witness to other violent acts
Incidence of Child Abuse*
*hard to estimate
*b/w 500,000 & 2.5 million children are abused every year
*more than 2,000 kids die each year from abuse
*150,000 + are seriously physically injured
Parental Risk Factors*
*see abuse across the board
*alcohol and drug use 20-40%
*childhood history of abuse - 30% likely to abuse their kids
*battered women
*young, poverty stricken, poorly educated, single parents
*emotionally insecure
*rely on physical punishment to control
Child Risk Factors*
*younger children more often abused than older kids b/c they are easier targets
*infants who are emotionally unresponsive, hyperactive, irritable, tempermentally impulsive, or ill at increased risk
*unhealthy and disabled children
*ADHD kids
*increase in family stress and demand on parents associated w/ crying, whining, regressive behaviors
Ecological Factors*
*more likely to occur in families under stress
*more likely in cultures where physical punishment is accepted
*more likely in families who are socially isolated from relatives, neighbors, or community services
** Associated Outcomes **
*Neglected kids: little stimulation from adults to foster intellectual or academic competencies, this may have academic difficulties, may be held back a grade
** Associated Outcomes **
Physical Abuse
*Physical: can be hostile/ aggressive; increased discipline probs; impaired social relationships; likely to be rejected by peers; may lack empathy in response to distressed peers
** Associated Outcomes **
Sexual Abuse
*Sexual: increased sexualized behaviors; 1/3 show PTSD; may have difficulties with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, acting out, aggression, withdrawal, academics; in about 1/2 - no long term psychological symptoms as young adults
Prevention and Intervention*
*agents of detection are teachers, school counselors, pediatricians, psychologists
*prevention programs: parental support targeting at risk parents; "good-touch bad-touch" may not be effective
(Start of Ch.12)
Television Literacy
- one's ability to understand how information is conveyed in tv programming and to interpret this information properly
-prior to age 8-9, children are most captivated by visual production features of TV programming and may have difficulty inferring characters' motives and intentions or reconstruction a coherent story line; they process prog. inf in a piecemeal fashion; they remember actions, but not why; under 7 they think tv characters retain their roles
- lack of gen tv lit in young children increases the liklihood that they will imitate the behaviors they see in tv.
Who's watching TV and how much??
TV and children's lifestyles
- tv has decreased time parents spend with their kids in non-tv leasure activities; "electronic babysitter"
-tv watching goes up in preschool and elementary school with peak viewing age at 11-12
-boys watch more than girls
-lower IQs > higher IQs
-lower income > higher income
-in moderate doses, tv neither deadens young minds nor impairs social development - it depends on what children are watching and their ability to understand what they have seen
TV violence effects on children
- heavy exposure to violence of TV can instigate aggressive behavior, cultivate aggressive habits and mean world beliefs, and desensitize viewers to instance of real world aggression
-supports social learning viewpoint and provides no support for catharsis hypothesis
Social Learning Viewpoint
*media violence promotes aggressive behavior oc children who watch violence
*physiological evidence that they become emotionally aroused when they watch others fight
*violent actors serve as aggressive models teaching children violent acts
Catharsis Hypothesis
- people watching violence on TV should experience catharsis, a draining away of their own frustrations and anger
- not true
Mean-World Belief
- a belief, fostered by watching TV violence, that the world is a more dangerous and frightening place than it really is
Desensitization hypothesis
-the notion that people who watch a lot of media violence will become less aroused by aggression and more tolerant of violent and aggressive acts
TV as a source of social stereotypes
- commercial tv programs present negative stereotypes that influence viewers' beliefs about minority groups and gender issues
TV and kids' health
-heavy tv viewing contributes to childhood obesity (20% above ideal weight)
- amount of TV a kid watches is a strong predictor for futire obesity, expecially if kids are watching more than 5 hours a day
-it also promotes poor eating habits with kids snacking while watching and seeing unhealthy foods adverstised
What can be done to reduce harmful effects of TV on kids?
-limit tv viewing
-encourage appropriate viewing
-explain tv info to kids
-model good habits
-parent authoritatively
** plan ahead - TV not a solution for boredom
**tv programs as tools for discussion of values and intrapersonal skills
What is good about TC?
-kids are likely to learn prosocial lessons and put them into practice after watching acts of kindness on TV
-Parents can help by watching shows like Mr. Rogers w/ their kids and then encouraging them to verbalize or role-play the lessons they observed
-educational programs such as Sesame Street have been quite successful at fostering basic cog. skills that enhance kids' readiness for school, especially when they watch w/ an adult who will discuss it with them and help them apply it
What's good about computers?
-kids seem to benefit intellectually and socially from their computer use.
-when knowledgeable teachers present their students with higher-level thought provoking academic games and simulations, computer assisted instruction often improves achievement
-computers promote rather than inhibit social interaction with peers
What about programming computers?
-learning to program a computer can also help facilitate cognitive and metacognitive development
-one's knowledge about cognition and about the regulation of cognitive activities
Common concerns about computers
1. data shows that violent computer games instigate hostile attributional biases and aggressive behavior
2. fears that disadvantages kids and girls may reap fewer benefits associated w/ computer use
3. harm may result from kids' unrestricted access to sexual preditors and other negative influences on the internet
How do schools function as socialization agents for kids?*
*by age 5 or 6, kids are at school for about 5 hours a day -> as they get older
*children acquire basic knowledge
*informal curriculum: teaching kids to cooperate, respect aithority, obey rules, etc.
*Peer influences
Goals of Schools
*academic competency
*general knowledge
*socialization skills
*cognitive growth
Does school promote cognitive development?
*Yes, it does
*kids not in school= decrease in IQ
effective schools defined
*schools that are generally successful at achieving curricular and noncurricular objectives, regardless of racial, ethnic, or SES background of the student population
What else is an effective school?
-low absenteeism
-enthusiastic attitude about learning
-academic achievement
-occupational skills
-socially desirable patterns of behavior
What doesn't seem to impact a school's effectiveness?
-precise amount of money spent per pupil (only baseline needed)
-average class size (K-3 less than 15/20 is better)
-school size (smaller schools do have more access to extracurricular activities - kids less likely to drop out)
-whether schools practice ability tracking or mixed ability instruction (may be good for high abilities, but not low - widening the gap
-Classroom organization (open vs. traditional doesn't matter)
What does impact a school's effectiveness?
1.School Environment: clear academic goals, ratio of praise and reprimands, and classroom management (comfortable, task-focused, and engaging)
2.students are motivated to learn
3. Positive apptitide-treatment interactions, that is, a good fit b/w students' personal or cultural characteristics and the kinds of instruction they receive
4*. cohesive faculty with strong leadership and teamwork
5*.Discipline Styles: better if teach handles it instead of sending them to the principals office
Roles of Teachers at different levels of school
*preschool - K: companions, more like substitute caregivers; kids being reinforced for trying
*elementary: teachers are evaluators; authority figures
*HS: decreasing impact; less time spent with each teacher
Different types of instruction
*Authoritative: warm but controlling style in which the teacher makes many demands but also allows some autonomy and individual expression as long as students are staying w/in the set guidelines
*authoritarian: restrictive style where the teach makes absolute demands and uses threat or force to ensure compliance
*permissive: lax eith no rules and little guidance
Influences of Teachers
*appraisals of students' abilities and conduct
*teaching styles (with authoritative being best)
*Pygmallion Effect
*structure of student evaluations (test designs)
*influence on peer evaluations
Pygmalion Effect
-the tendency of teacher expectancies to become self-fulfilling prophecies, causing students to perform better or worse depending on their teacher's estimation of their potential
Ethnic Differences in Adjustment to school
-can often be traced to parental (uninvolved is school activities counteracts message that school is important) and peer influences and differential treatment by teachers as illustrated by Pygmalion effects
Special Needs Students
-inclusion has produced modest or no improvements in the academic performance of special needs students while failing to enhance their self-esteem or peer acceptance
Ways to better meet educational needs of all students
-creating stronger bilingual and multicultural educational programs
-making greater use of cooperative learning methods in the classroom
Cooperative Learning Methods
an educational practice whereby children of different backgrounds or ability levels are assigned to teams; each team member works on problems geared to his or her ability level, and all members are reinforced for "pulling together" and performing well as a team
How to make education better in the US
-get teachers, students, and parents working together to make education a top priority for our youth
-set high achievement goals
-invest in the day to day effort required to attain those objectives
-strengthen curricula
-raising standards for teacher certification
-raising standards for grade promotion and graduation
-shortening summer vacation
-involve parents as partners
(Beginning of Ch. 13)
What are peers?
-two or more persons who are operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity
Importance of Peers * Ethologists' View
*Ethologists believe that peers are adaptive to the species - they promote the development of adaptive patterns of social conduct in each successive generation
Age Types of Peer Interaction
*Same Aged Peers: important b/c it allows the sharing of ideas an behaviors and teaches sharing of perspectives of people just like themselves
*Mixed Aged Peers: also important b/c they are helpful for acquiring social competencies; younger kids learn new skills, older kids learn to take leader role
Frequency of Peer Interaction
-increases with age
-starts w/ parents setting up play dates. etc. -> school -> kids initiating getting together
Importance of Peer Influences - reasearch
-Harlow's Monkeys: mother-only monkeys failed to develop patterns of social behavior and avoided peers or were aggressive when they were mixed with them
-peer-only monkeys clung to each other and formed strong mutual attachments, yet they became highly agitated over minor frustrations and were more aggressive towards others not in their group as adults
Human Parallel to Harlow study
-Freud and Dann studied 6 3 yr olds found living by themselves in a concentration camp and sent for Tx
-at first, they broke all the toys, were cold or hostile to staff, and became extremely agitated when separated; prosocial concern for each other
-eventually established + relationships with adult caregivers and lef effective/ productive lives as adults
Importance of Peers*
-rejected kids are at a higher risk for:
-dropping out of school
-involvement in delinquent activities
-serious psychological difficulties late in life
*a child's willingness to engage others in social interaction and to seek their attention and approval
*affects how others interact with them
*affects opportunities for social interactions
Development of Sociability from 0-preschool*
*begins around 1.5-2yrs -> coordinated action with age mates
*by age 4-5, bids for peer attention over parental attention
*preschoolers: pretend play is important
Pretend Play
*important for
-communication skills
-emotional understanding
-role-taking skills
-enhanced capacity for caring
*preschoolers better at pretend play are better accepted by peers
Parten's Play Patterns of Preschoolers
1. Nonsocial Activity
-onlooker behavior and solitary play
Play Patterns
2. Parallel Play
-laregely noninteractive play in which players are in close proximity but do not often attempt to influence each other
Play Patterns
3. Associative Play
-form of social discourse in which children pursue their own interests but will swap toys or comment on each other's activities
Play Patterns
4. Cooperative Play
-true social play in which children cooperate or assume reciprocal roles while pursuing shared goals
Parten's Play Patterns
-solitary and parallel play decline with age
-associative and cooperative play become more common with age
Development of Sociability from Middle CHildhood through Early Adolescence*
*Mid. Childhood: increasingly sophisticated; peer groups rather than a pair of kids; rule-governed games
*Early adolescence: form cliques; 2x as much time with peers as with family
Middle Childhood from book about peer groups
-more peer interactions occur in true peer groups - confederations that associate regularly, define a sense of group membership, and establish norms that specify how group members are to behave
Cliques and Crowds in adolescence
-Cliques: small groups of friends that interact frequently
-Crowd: large, reputationally based peer group made up of people and cliques that share similar norms, interests, and values
Adolescence from book
-spending more time with peers, especially in cliques and in crowds which help them forge an identity apart from their families and pave the way for the establishment of dating relationships
-early dating relationships are more like friendships and tend to boost an adolescent's self esteem
How do parents influence sociability
-by virtue of the neighborhood they choose to live in
-their willingness to serve as "booking agents" for peer contacts
-monitoring of peer interactions
-secre attachments are associated with positive peer relationships
-authoritative tend to raise appropriately sociable kids who have good peer relationships
-authoritarian and uninvolved, especially those who rely on power assertion have disruptive, aggressive kids whom peers don't like
sociometric techniques
Procedures that ask kids to identify those peers whom they like or dislike or to rate peers for their desirability as companions; used to measure kids peer acceptance or nonacceptance
*2 deminsions: SOCIAL PREFERENCE - receive more + than - nominations; SOCIAL IMPACT - total # of nominations at all
Peer Acceptance*
*the extend to which a child is viewed by peers as a worth or likeable companion
* broken down into categories on following cards
Popular children
children who are liked by many members of their peer group and disliked by very few
*High in Social Pref. and High in Social Impact
Rejected Children
children who are disliked by many peers and liked by few
*Low in social preference and High in social impact
*highly stable - they are going to be on people's lists from yr to yr; lonliest of the groups and at risk for showing greater probs
Neglected Children
children who receive few nominations as either a like or disliked individual from members of their peer group
*Medium in social preference, Low in social impact
Controversial Children
children who receive many nominations as a liked and as a disliked individual
*high in social impact - don't stay controversial for long and end up on popular or rejected list
Average-Status Children
children who receive an average number of nominations as a liked/and or a disliked individual from members of their perr group
Factors Influencing a Child's Social Standing
-Parenting Styles
-Tempermental Characteristics
-Cognitive Skills
-Physical Attributes
-Behavioral Characteristics
Parenting Styles as a Factor
Authoritative Parenting is best as described earlier
Tempermental Characteristics as a Factor
-kids who are irritable and impulsive are at risk for bad interactions with peers which may lead them to be rejected
-relatively passive kids who are behaviorally inhibited and slow to warm up are at risk of being neglected or even rejected by peers
Cognitive and Social Skills as a Factor
-well developed role taking skills in popular kids
-popular, avg., and neglected kids tend to have higher IQs than rejected kids
Physical Attributes - Facial Attractiveness as a factor
-facial attractiveness: attractive gnereally more liked by peers and teachers; unattractive= louder and aggressive, leading to alienation of others -> self-fulfilling prophecy b/c everyone expects them to be
Physical Attributes - Body Build as a factor
-ectomorphic = thin/ linear
-endomorphic = chubby
-mesomorphic = athletic/ lean
-kids prefer mesomorphs and attribute more positive adjectives to them
-mesomorphs most popular and endomorphs least popular
Physical Attributes - Puberty as a Factor for boys
-Boys: early maturers more popular than late maturers; they tend to be confident, atletic honors, and elected in SGA; slightly greater risk of delinquency and using substances, especially if in bad neighborhoods; fewer conflicts with parents
*these differences fade into adulthood
Physical Attributes - Puberty as a factor for Girls
-early maturing girls are less popular, less outgoing, and report more anxiety and depression
-these girls are often sought out by (or seek) older friends and boys who may steer them away from school and into sex and drugs which they are not ready to handle
-long term - impacts are usually seen in those who become heavily involved with sex and drugs
Behavioral Characteristics as Factors for Popular and Neglected kids
*Popular kids: outgoing, calm, mediate conflicts, initiate and maintain interactions w/ peers
*Neglected kids: passive/ shy, they'd play if asked, but won't innitiate it
Behavioral Characteristics as factors for Aggressive-Rejected Kids
*Aggressive-Rejected Kids: high levels of hostility and aggression in their interactions w/ peers; can't maintain relationships over time; hostile attribution bias; overestimate social standing, no prosocial behavior
Behavioral Characteristics for Withdrawn-Rejected Kids
-passive; socially anxious; socially unskilled; insensitive to peer group expectations; unusual behaviors, "weird"; risk of developing low self esteem; risk of being bullied
Stability of Sociometric Statuses
Neglected kids: likely to change status if they move or change classes
Rejected Kids: tend to stay that way
Controversial Kids: likely to become either rejected or popular without staying controversial for long
*Popular kids: tend to stay popular I think
What types of interventions may be helpful for rejected kids?
-reinforcement and modeling therapies,
-social-cognitive interventions such as coaching and social problem-solving training
-academic remediation
-social skills training works better with younger kids than adolescents and when the kids' teachers and classmates participate in the intervention
-method of social skills training in which the adult displays and explains various socially skilled behaviors, allows the child to practice them, and provides feedback aimed at improving the child's performance
Social Problem-Solving Training
- method of social skills training in which an adult helps children (through role playing or role-taking training) to make less hostile attributions about harmdoing and to generate nonaggressive solutions to conflict
What is a Friend?
-kids typically form close ties, or friendships, with one or more members of their play groups
-younger kids view friends as a fun playmate
older kids/adolescents view friends as close companions who share similar interests and values and are willing to provide them with intimate social and emotional support
What is it about someone that makes it easy for them to make friends?
-high levels of social understanding - respect rules, understand others
emotions and are good at reading others' thoughts
-can resolve conflicts
-agree on joint play activities
-willing to exchange info through self-disclosure
Interactions among Friends
-among friends, they are warmer, more cooperative, more compassionate, and more synchronous (though not necessarily less conflictual) than those among nonfriend acquaintances
What are the advantages to having friends?
-safety net/ buffer in times of stress (if not popular, you at least have one friend to buffer that)
-Social Support
strong sense of self worth and compassion
-Opportunity to learn social problem solving skills and ability to compromise when resolving conflicts with pals
-Adolescents w/ close friendships - as adults - + mental health; strong self-worth; solid ties to romantic partners (friendless peers didn't have these characteristics)
Social Support
tangible and intangible resources provided by other people in times of uncertainty or stress
Diviancy Training
interactions among deviant peers that perpetuate and intensify a child's behavior problems and antisocial conduct
Peer Conformity
-the tendency to go along with the wishes of peers or to yield to peer-group pressures
-pressure peeks at midadolescence when teens are highly suceptible to peer group norms, including those that endorse misconduct
-conflicts stemming from differences in the values and practices advocated by parents and those advocated by peers
-not a prob for most teens who have established warm relationships w/ their parents and internalized their values
-peer groups also tend to reflect similar values as parents, and peers are more likely to discourage rather than condone antisocial conduct
-two influences are more complimentary than contradictory
(Ch 14)Major Themes -
Human Development is a Holistic Enterprise
-we are at once physical, cognitive, social, and emotional beings, and all these developmental threads are interwoven in the whole developing person
1. We are active Contributors to our own development
-it is an ongoing transaction between an active person and a changing environment each influencing the other in a reciprocal way, that steers development
There is Much Plasticity in Human Development
-resilient beings being the reason that earlier traits and developments often do not forcast later outcomes
-they rarely make or break us
-there are opportunities throughout life to undo damage done by early traumas, to teach us new skills, and to redirect our lives
-when damaging early experiences are offset by later favorable experiences, we can expect plastic beings to display adaptive outcomes
The Nature-Nurture Distinction is a FALSE Dichotomy
-clear that multiple causal forces representing both nature and nurture conspire to direct human development
-nature needs nurture to be expressed behaviorally, and nurture always acts on nature
Both normative and idiosyncratic developments are important
-development ALWAYS proceeds in normative and idiosyncratic directions, and such diversity is even adaptive from an evolutionary point of view, because species w/ highly diverse characteristics are more likely to survice catastrophic changes in their environments
We Develop in a Cultural and Historical Context
-social and personality development simply takes different forms in different cultures, SES, racial, and ethinic groups
-each person's development is influenced by social changes and historical events occuring during his lifetime
-knowledge of human development is largely time-bound
-importance of contextual influences
-recognize changes in family and gender roles, technology, & social innovations yet to come
-no way of development or parenting is ideal for everyone
Development is Best Viewed from Multiple Perspectives
-many disciplines have stuff to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of social and personality development
Patterns of Parenting (and adult guidance) Clearly Matter
-exerts most influence on kids
-children need love, guidance, and limits from involved parents who are highly concerned with helping to underwrite developmental successes
-Parents must also be adaptable/ goodness of fit
Many social Forces Conspire to Shape Development
-schools are crucial and kids affected by goodness of fit
-technological influences such as TV, internet
-society of one's peers is important for development of social skills and the growth of prosocial concern, cooperation and teamwork, healthy attitudes about competition, a sense of identity and belongingness apart from the family, and self-esteem

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