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instrumental lit exam 2


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Giovanni Gabrieli
1st composer to indicate dynamics in music and to take advantage of contrasts- 1st to specify which instruments played- wrote polychoral motets
baroque string instrument predecessor to viola
dinner or table music
sonata de camera
Baroque chamber sonata usually a suite of stylized dances- chamber sonata
sonata de chiesa
Baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church- 4 movements frequently slow-fast-s-f church sonata
trio sonata
baroque chamber sonata type written in 3 parts- 2 melody lines and the basso continuo requires 4 players
basso continuo
Italizan for continuous bass- figured bass- also refers to performance group w/ bass, chordal instrument (harpsichord, organ) and 1 bass melody instrument (Cello, bassoon)
binary form
two part 1-b form with each section normally repeated
Baroque form similir to chaconne on moderatly slow triple meter, based on short repeated bass line melody that serves as the basis for continuous variation in other voices
Baroque form similar to passacaglia where the variations are based on a repeated chord progression
frech overture
Baroque form similar to the passacaglia where the variations are based on a repeated chord progression
Italian overture
baroque overture consisting of 3 sectioins f-s-f
chamber music
ensemble music for up to about 10 players w/ 1 player to a part
string quartet
chamber music ensemble consisting of 2 violins, viola, cello also multimovement composition for this ensemble
classical instrumenal genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment
classical instrumental genre that combines elsements of chamber music and symphony often performed in the evnings or at socail functions
sonata cycle
multimovement cycle- 3 or 4 movement structure used in classical era instruemntal music especially symphony, sonata, concerto and in chamber music, each movement is in a prescribed tempo/form
sonata allegro form
opening movement of multimovement cycle consisting of themes that are stated in 1st section (exposition) developed in 2nd section (development) and restated in 3rd section (recapitulation)
ternary form
3 part A-B-A form based on a statement (A ) contrast or departure (B) and repetition (A)
theme and variations form
compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and them altered in successive statements, occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of multimovement cycle
minuet and trio
an A-B-A form work in moderate triple meter, often the 3rd movement of the classical multimovement cycle
scherzo and trio
composition in A-B-A form usually in triple meter, replaced minuet and trio in 19th century
rondo frm
musical form where the 1st section recurs usually in the tonic, in classical multimovement cycle it appears as the last movement in various forms including A-B-A-B-A; A-B-A-C-A-B-A; A-B-A-C-A
Haydns benefactor- family of wealthy Hungarian princes known for patronage of the arts/ palace had its own opera house, orchestra, opera company, maionette theater and chapel all in Haydn's charge
Johann Peter Salomon
Empire whom Haydn wrote Quinten quartet for
Quinten Quartet
Haydns 2nd string quartet of Op. 76 in d- means interval of the 5th because opening theme played by 1st violin features repeated motive marked by descending 5ths
Gotterhalte Franz den Kaiser
God Save the Emperor- slow movement of 3rd quartet (op. 76 No. 3) where consists of a set of variations on a melody haydn wrote for emperor's birthday
Hayden Quartets
dedicated set of 6 quartets written by Mozard in the 1780's because he so esteemed the older composer
Prince Lobkowitz
powerful patron of Beethoven whom appears in the deidcations of his works
Count Rasumovsky
another patronage of Beethoven
Schubert's series of evenings with a band of writers, artists, and musicians where his newest works were performed
Die Frolle
the trout folk like work of Lieder/ string quartet written by Schubert
Trout Quintet
quartet w elegant workmanship, melodious charm, and refinement of feeling where same simple song theme is used and passed from 1 instrument to the next
William Billings
boston music teacher (1746-1800) who wrote fuging tunes- polyphonic settings of psalms/hymns in an overlapping imitative setting (related to the fugue but not in strict form)
Lowell Mason
American educator who was single handedly responsible for establishing music as a a part of the public school circulum
John Knowles Paine
1 of the 1st American composers to write music comparable in quality to that of European musicians, modeled a mass in D after Missa Solemnis
Second New England School
renewed by interest in work of Amy Cheney Beach- leading woman composer of her time
Henry Harris Aubrey Beach
husband of Amy Cheney Beach who asked his wife to limit her performances and led to her focus on composition
Gaelic Symphony and mass in E flat major
2 major works of Amy Cheney Beach
Elliot Carter
American composer who made significant contributions to the development of new music- modern music influence for last 1/2 century blends European moderism and American ultra modernism
metric modulation
used by Carter fluctuations and tempos help create form of piece
Nadia Boularger
famed teacher of Paris- Copeland wrote Symphony for organ and orchestra for her- Phillip Glass also studied with her
use o teh 5 note pattern used in some African, Far Eastern, and Native American music used as example of exoticism
individual pure sounds that are part of any musical tone; in string instruments crystalline tones in the very high register. produced by lightly touching a vibrating string at a certain point
bowed 2 string fiddle from CHina with its bow hairs fixed between the strings; rest on the leg while playing
a chinese lute with 4 silk strings; played as solo and ensemble instrument
a Chinese hammered dulcimer with a trapexoidal sound box and metal strings that are struck with bamboo sticks
early Baroque keyboard instrument where strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers like the piano, also clavichord
stringed keyboard instrument popular in the Renaissance and Baroque that is capable of unique expressive devices not possible on the harpsichord
instrumental genre in several movements for solo instrument (or instrumental group) and orchestra
concerto grosso
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (concertino) and orchestra (ripieno)
solo group of instruments in Baroque concerto grosso
orchestral larger accompanying group in Baroque concerto grosso also called tutti
all the opposite of solo
ripieno concerto
also called concerto grosso
solo concerto
popular in Classical period based on solo instrument vs large ensemble
Giuseppe Torelli
1658-1709 active in Northern Italian musical center of Bologona who contributed to both concerto types works 3 movement structure with uniftying ritornellos in indiv movements
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and teh Baroque concerto- refrain
ritornello form
based around recurring ritornello, often called 1st movement form
interlude or intermediate section in the Baroque fuque which serves as an area of relaxation between statements of the subject
virtuosic solo passage in teh manner of an improv performed near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto
double exposition
in the concerto, two fold statement of the themes once by the orchestra and once by the soloist
cyclical form
structure in which musical material such as a theme presented in 1 movement returns in a later movement
thematic transformation/development
msuical expanision of a them by varying its melodic outline, harmony or rhythm
total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key) atonal music moves from 1 level of dissonance to another without areas of relaxation
12 tone method/serialism
method of composition where various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tone color) may be ordered in a fixed series
tone row
an arrangement of the 12 chromatic tones that serves as the basis of a 12 tone composition
forms of a row
transposition- shifting a piece to a different pitch level; inversion- mirror or upside down image of a melody or pattern; retrograde- backward statement of the melody; retrograde inversion- mirror image and backward statement of a melody
comparative study of msuics of the world with a focus on the cultural context of music
additive meter
patterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups (2+3+2+3=10) common in Eastern European music
the simultaneous use of 2+ keys common in 20th century music
Le Quattro stagion
Vivaldi's best known work- the 4 seasons- group of 4 violin concertos bases each movement on a poem describing joys of season- peom printed in score- instrumental painting with words
la primavera
1st movement- spring of the 4 seasons- solo violin with orchestra (strings and basso continuo on harpsichord/organ) birds welcome murmur of streams thunder and lightening, used staccato/trills/ rippling scales- storm is repeated note in ascending minor scale- ritornello in orchestra
20th century tech in which the notes of a melody are distributed among diff instruments giving a pointillistic texture
Georg Phillip Teleman
1681-1767- prolific in genre of Baroque orchestral suites- contributed over 125 and established French orchestra suite in Germany- wrote Tafelmusik collection which begins with overture and intro and followed by quick fugual section
msuical offering
Bach elaborated on royal theem and added trio sonata to dispatch this to the Monarch- one of his last works at height of contrapuntal wizardy
Die Kunstder Fuge
another of Bach's late works- evidence of his contrapuntal mastery
Brandenburg concerto
I-Allegro form depends on contrast tutti and solo group recorder, oboe, violin, trumpet- II slow movement idalogue of solo violin, oboe, recorder (no trumpet)
Barbara von Player
gifted pianist young student of Mozard- he wrote 2 concertos for her
Ferdinand David
virtuoso concertmaster of Leipzig Gewandhaug orchestra- Felix Mendelssohn wrote violin concerto for him
A Midsummer Night's Dream
overture by Mendelsoohn program music or incidental music for Shakespeare's play
"Scottish" symphony
1 of Mendelssohn's best known symphony- III - momento to youthful travel
Italian symphony
1 of Mendelssohn's best known symphonys- IV- memento to youthful travel
Songs without words
8 set of short piano pieces by Mendelssohn
1 of Mendelssohns best loved works oraterio for voice
Verklarte Nacht
one of Schonberg's composition of era of post Wagnerian Romanticism- still used key and tonality boundaries
Second Viennese School
Arnold Schoenberg, alban Berg, and Anton Webern (1st was Haydn/Mozart/ Beethoven)
Schoberg used this new style where vocal melody spoke rather than sung on exact pitches/rhythms
Berg's unfinished opera- left off orchestrating to write violin concerto- recently orchestrated by Australain composer Friedrich Cerha- challenging work of modern lyric theater
Georg Bruchner
young author belonged to generation of inteelectuals who were stifled by political repression imposed on Europe after the defeat of Napoloen- wrote Expressionest play that inspired Berg's opera Wozzeck- title character was archetype of the insulted and injured of the earth
tech employed by Bartok in his symphonies where same foreward and backward
arch forms
5 movement feature connecting movements in certain ways A-B-C-B-A with similar character set up
playing the wooden part of the bow
Les Six
Group that followed example of Erik Satie in their efforts to develop a style that combined objectivity and understatement with Neoclassism and newer concepts of harmony; Darius Milhaud remembered today for ballet Creation of the World and for being leader in the development of poytonality; Arthur Honegger the Pacific 231 a symphonic poem glorifying the locomotive- Germaine Talleferne was only woman in group of composers- Francis Poulence most significant of the 6
the Wooden Prince
ballet by Bartok
Music for Strings, Percussion, and celsta
Bartok orchestral work- often considered his masterpiece
Zoltan Kodaly
Hungarian Nationalism representative toured with Bartok
Dmitri Shostakovich
the 1st Russian composer of international reputations who was a product of the musical culture during period of the Soviet Union
Sergei rachmaninoff
other member of post Romantic Russian school who achieved international fame through his enormously popular piano works
Serge Koussevitsky
conductor who visited Bartok and offered him a 1000 commission and premiere by Boston Symphony orchestra
going into culture to study the music
Alexander Nevsky
choral cantata by Prokofiev that he later adapted as a film score
romeo and juliet
ballet by Provokiev
Classical Symphony
No 1 of 7 symphonies by Prokofiev
genre that orginated as keyboard works in the style of polyphonic and or homophonic vocal pieces
La Musique de la chambre
group designated to play for fetes, tragedies en musique, ballets, and other "public" events in the time of Louis XIV in Versailles of continental Europe
Harp Quartet
Op. 74 in E flat- Beethoven dedicated to Lobkowitzed- nickname derived from conspicuous pizzicato arpeggios of 1st movement
Quartet Serioso
Op. 95 in f dedicated to Nicolaus Zmeskall- shortest and most concentrated of Beethoven's quartets
Nikolas galitzin
Russian Prince whom Beethoven dedicated 3 of the 5 late quartets to
String quartet in c sharp minor Op. 131
one of the 5 late quartets by Beethoven where he sought to use full potential of the themes/motives; used variation technique and an extensive useof contraputal fugual writing- unusual number of movements
alla tedescar
In german style (4th movement of quartet in B flat Op. 130 by Beethoven)
Grosse Fugue
original finale to Beethoven's Quartet in B flat Op. 130 which was a 15 minute essay on fugue and contrapuntal tech, poorly recieved so he worte new finale and published this seperatedly as op. 133
family of similar musical instruments playing together- wealthy families owned chest of viols (2 trebles, 2 tenors, 2 basses)
seconda pratica
emerged in Italy around 1600 and ushered in new musical styles and genres which affected all spheres of musical composition and practice including spread of basso continuo, development of monody, and growing importance of instrumental music and violin family
a cross between large cello and a lute which Haydn composed a competent of chamber works for
Death and the maiden Quartet
Schubert used his song as theme for Quartet in d D. 810
Anthony Philip Heinrich
1781-1861; Bohemian born composer who wrote programmatic works that utlized Native american themes, quoted popular or patriotic tunes or sought to describe newfoundland- first "American" composer to have international reputation
Bartok pizzicato
one of the whole range of pizzicato effects Bartok used- evident in String Quartet no. 4 IV
Quatuor pour la fin du temps (Quartet for the end of time)
messieian 8 movement quartet derived from incarceration in Germany during War where he shared space with a violinist, cellist, and clarinetist; 1st performed in prison camp in 1941- inspired by Revelation: 10 describing end oftime on earth
Turangalila Symphony
joy of the blood of the stars- along freetic dance of joy that signifies the transformation on a cosmic scale experienced as result of union of true lovers- By messiaen- 10 movements with 4 cyclic themes and non retrogradable rhythms
last movemnet of Crumb's mikrokosmos
Heinrich Schutz
early Baroque German composer whohelped establish Lutheran vernacular as literary and liturgical language- embodied concept of musica poetica
Ospedale della Pieta
all female choir who vivaldi orginally wrote his Gloria for
Bach composed/worked there- believed some of his lost works were composed in this period
St Thomas's school, leipzig
where Bach was canter and city director of music for 27 years which had a great impact on the city
emancipation of dissonance
tension becomes norm in contemporary works- serves as final cadence freedom of dissonance from obligation to resolve and lead to acceptance of new tone combinations- concept linked closely to Schonberg's 12 tone method
Sergei Eisenstein
Soviet Union's leading film director in the 1930-40's- directed Alexander Nevsky and Ivan the Terrible which prokofiev composed his 2 greatest film scores for
Schoenberg's 1st work for musical theater for orchestra and soprano- libretto by marie pappeheim- archetyal expressionist short work based on psychological fable of woman who finds her lover dead in a moonlight forest
Scythian suite
Prokofiev orchestral work one of his most violent and dissonant pieces- early work

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